Electron energy analyzers measure the number of ejected electrons as a function of the electron energies. The analyzers must be located in a high vacuum chamber and isolated from stray magnetic fields (including the earthís) that deflect electrons. Past Auger spectrometers used several types of electron energy analyzers, including spherical sector and cylindrical mirror analyzers. However, modern instruments nearly always incorporate cylindrical mirror analyzers because their high transmission efficiency leads to better signal-to-noise ratios. The schematic shows a cross section of a cylindrical mirror analyzer in red. The primary electron beam hits the sample surface at the source point of the analyzer. Auger electrons move outward in all directions and some pass through the grid covered aperture in the inner cylinder. A variable negative potential on the outer cylinder bends the Auger electrons back through a second aperture on the inner cylinder and then through an exit aperture on the analyzer axis. The energy of transmitted electrons is proportional to the voltage (-V) on the outer cylinder.
Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Development Services
EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination…
EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination products and other therapies. From designing IND-enabling studies to delivering full CMC analytical and QC support, we join your R&D team as a true partner. EAG scientists take time to understand both your commercial goals and the unique characteristics of your compound. We provide expert guidance to balance regulatory expectations with expediency and cost, and approach technical challenges with flexibility and resolve.