Industries
Services

Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Development Services

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination…

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination products and other therapies. From designing IND-enabling studies to delivering full CMC analytical and QC support, we join your R&D team as a true partner. EAG scientists take time to understand both your commercial goals and the unique characteristics of your compound. We provide expert guidance to balance regulatory expectations with expediency and cost, and approach technical challenges with flexibility and resolve.

Materials Testing & Analysis

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity…

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity of analytical techniques of technical ingenuity of EAG. From polymers to composites, thin films to superalloys—we know how to leverage materials sciences to gain a competitive edge. At EAG, we don’t just perform testing, we drive commercial success—through thoughtfully designed investigations, technically superior analyses and expert interpretation of data.

Environmental Testing & Regulatory Compliance

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of…

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of active ingredients and formulations—from pesticides and pharmaceuticals to industrial chemicals and consumer products. Whether you are exploring “what if” scenarios, registering a new active ingredient or formulation, responding to a data call-in or seeking to understand the latest guidance, turn to EAG for technical excellence, sound advice, GLP-compliant study execution and expert interpretation.

Microelectronics Test & Engineering

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human…

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human life. In the world of technology, innovation and continuous improvement are imperatives—and being able to quickly and reliably test, debug, diagnose failures and take corrective action can make the difference between a doomed product launch and building a successful global brand. EAG offers you the world’s largest and most diverse collection of specialized analytical instrumentation, capacity to perform a variety of microelectronic tests in parallel, and the multi-disciplinary expertise required to draw true insight from data.

Custom Synthesis & Radiolabeling

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical…

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical and related industries than we do. From 14C and 3H radiolabeled clinical trial materials synthesized under cGMP, to stable-labeled active ingredients for metabolism and environmental fate/effects testing, turn to EAG. We have extensive experience with multi-step and other complex synthesis projects, and our comprehensive, in-house analytical services ensure quick turnaround of purity and structural confirmation.

Crop Biotechnology & Development

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years' experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address…

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years’ experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address the growing needs of the biotechnology crop industry. We offer a wide range of techniques required to fully characterize the event insertion and expressed proteins, as well as the various studies required to confirm the food, feed and environmental safety of products that represent the trait. From early-stage protein confirmation to GLP-compliant EDSP and allergenicity testing, we help you make faster, more informed development decisions and comply with evolving global regulations of genetically engineered crops.

Litigation Support & Expert Testimony

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes,…

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes, turn to EAG. We’ve provided technical consulting, analysis and expert testimony for hundreds of cases involving the aerospace, transportation, medical device, electronics, industrial and consumer product industries. Our team of experts understands the legal process and your need for responsiveness, effective communication, scientifically defensible opinion and confidentiality. From professional consulting to data review to trial preparation and expert witness testimony, ask EAG.

Techniques

Chromatography

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer…

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer look at the purity of your pharmaceutical or need to better understand an agrochemical’s components, EAG has the expertise to separate and evaluate any compound.

Mass Spectrometry

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and…

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and molecules in almost any pure or complex material to detect and obtain mass spectra of the components. We rely on decades of experience in mass spectrometry to provide our clients with precise analyses and the best detection limits.

Imaging

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images…

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images for various industries, from consumer electronics to nanotechnology. Using state-of-the-art equipment and innovative techniques, we conduct expert imaging to aid in failure analysis, dimensional analysis, process characterization, particle identification and more. If you want to investigate a material with angstrom scale resolution, you can count on EAG to get the job done quickly and precisely.

Spectroscopy

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and…

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and methodology with cutting-edge technology to analyze your organic, inorganic, metallic and composite materials for identification, compositional, structural and contaminant information. Whether you need expert spectroscopic analysis to improve your production process or to surmount a technical challenge, EAG is up to the task.

Physical/Chemical Characterization

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be…

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be done right, you can count on EAG. We offer a range of adaptable techniques and innovative methods to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of any compound. Our highly precise testing and analytical services will improve your production process, expedite R&D and help you conquer any technical challenge.

About

A Global Scientific Services Company

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and…

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and business. The scientists and engineers of EAG apply multi-disciplinary expertise, advanced analytical techniques and “we know how” resolve to answer complex questions that drive commerce around the world.

Our Customers

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and…

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and highly regulated industries. We help our customers innovate new and improved products, investigate manufacturing problems, perform advanced analyses to determine safety, efficacy and regulatory compliance, and protect their brands.

Our Company Culture

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win…

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win together.” Across all of our 20+ locations, you will find a true passion for science and the power of science to improve the world we live in. Hear what some of our ~1200 scientists, engineers and support personnel say about what it means to be part of EAG Laboratories.

Careers

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you.…

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you. Browse current openings now, and re-visit our careers page often.

How do you constantly innovate while driving down costs?

CdTe Thin Film PV – Application Discussion

CdTe thin film PV is one of the main thin film PV technologies being commercialized. CdTe has the advantage of a direct bandgap which matches well with the solar spectrum, a high absorption coefficient, the ability to be doped both n-type and p-type, and processes that can work for low cost, large scale manufacturing.

The main areas for improvement of CdTe thin film PV are the cell and module efficiencies. Materials characterization using surface analysis methods can be used to support R&D of efficiency improvements.

The representative schematic of the CdTe Thin Film PV device structure shown above illustrates some of the ways surface analysis can help.

On the left side of the schematic we see the layered structure. The light enters through the glass substrate (bottom of the schematic), through the TCO (transparent conducting oxide), the thin (50-150 nm) CdS film, and is absorbed in the thicker (2-8µm) CdTe layer where electron-hole pairs are formed. The p/n junction formed by the CdS/CdTe heterojunction creates a depletion region which separates the electron and holes which are then collected by the TCO and the metal contact formed on the CdTe surface. The CdS and CdTe layers are made up of multi-crystalline grains resulting in textured or rough interfaces. Thermal processing can cause diffusion between layers (e.g., S) or introduce new elements (e.g. Cl from a Cl-containing anneal step, Cu from the metal contact) that may or may not be detrimental to device performance. The metal contact and its interface with the CdTe are especially sensitive to the surface chemistry of the CdTe before the metal contact is added. In addition there are a wide range of possible materials used for the metal contact, for the TCO, and for doping the CdTe, all of which might be used to improve the device efficiency.

On the right side of the schematic we see that if a soda lime glass is used for the glass substrate, impurities such as Na or Fe may diffuse into the device. This impurity diffusion can be measured by SIMS.

The glass substrate has a TCO layer, such as SnO2:F, ITO (In2O3:Sn), or ZnO:Al between the substrate surface and the CdS layer. The TCO may include a high resistivity buffer layer, such as an oxide like SnO2, In2O3, Ga2O3, ITO, or ZnO. The phase of this material can be measured with XRD and the thickness can be measured with XRR. The composition of these layers can be measured with a variety of techniques, such as RBS and XPS. Phase or composition changes of these layers due to accelerated environmental tests can also be determined with these techniques. Surface texture of the TCO before CdS deposition can be measured with AFM.

The thin CdS layer is normally deposited by a chemical bath step. Phases, composition and thickness, as well as impurities can be determined by XRD, XPS, RBS, XRR, and SIMS. Surface texture can be measured with AFM. Defects can be analyzed by STEM/EDS.

The thick CdTe layer is deposited by a variety of methods, but in all cases is a multi-grain structure. GDMS can be used to quantitatively measure impurities in the CdTe feedstock powder or granules. GDMS can also measure the impurities in Cd and Te feedstock. These impurities can include unwanted counter dopants, and elements that cause electron-hole recombination in the depletion region, or elements that can contribute to structural defects that interfere with current collection. The Cl-containing thermal treatment changes the grain structure. XRD can determine the structural phases of the CdTe and CdS before or after thermal treatment. SEM and TEM can provide structural information about the CdTe/CdS interface before and after the thermal treatment. SIMS can provide quantitative measurement of dopants and impurities in the CdTe layer. Because the CdTe surface is rough (textured), the accuracy of the SIMS profiles can be improved by a polish of the CdTe surface before obtaining the SIMS profile. This also helps in measuring the S diffusion profile from the CdS into the CdTe. The surface texture of the CdTe layer before forming the metal contact can be measured by AFM. The surface chemistry (e.g., Te bonding) of the CdTe before metal contact can be measured by XPS, and TOF-SIMS can provide surface chemistry as well.

The metal contact normally contains Cu which diffuses into the device. The amount of Cu and its location in the device can either be beneficial or detrimental to device performance. The Cu profile can be measured by SIMS through the device. The interface between the metal contact and the CdTe can be analyzed by STEM/EDS and FE-AES (for a profile through a single CdTe grain). There are a variety of approaches to the contact, including for example, Cu-doped graphite paste, Cu/Au, Cu/Mo, Cu/ITO, and ZnTe:Cu. Composition, thickness, and phases of the metal contact can be analyzed by a variety of techniques, such as RBS, XRR, XRD, XPS, and AES.

For the module there is usually some kind of encapsulation material used and this can be analyzed by GCMS and FTIR.