Imaging / Mapping
In its simplest form, imaging analysis is looking at a surface using microscopy (either optical or electron). The information provided is limited by the capabilities of the instrumentation used. The primary analytical technique employed in this type of analysis is Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
The lateral distribution (i.e. location) of elemental, inorganic or molecular species can be investigated using:
- Electron beam techniques: (SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Auger Electron Spectroscopy)
These methods provide maps or images that show the relative positions of different species of interest, giving useful information regarding features, defects, particles, etc..
Other techniques can also be used to obtain images:
- Raman Spectroscopy typically measures molecular vibrations and provides information on functional groups, types of carbon, and stress/strain.
- Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) provides surface roughness images and also hardness, and magnetic property images.
- X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) provides elemental and chemical maps.
- Optical Profilometry can generate 3 dimensional images of surfaces, for dimensional measurement or imaging of specific features.
On a larger scale for wafer mapping up to 300mm, LEXES can be used to map dopants, thin film composition, and impurities; XRR/XRF can be used to map film thickness and density; TXRF can be used to map elemental contaminants.
Primary Analytical Techniques
Secondary Analytical Techniques