Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) are similar techniques that image a sample using an electron beam. Image resolutions that are around 1-2Å are provided by high energy electrons, which are incident on ultra-thin samples. TEM and STEM have better spatial resolution than SEM and can execute additional analytical measurements, but they require much more sample preparation.
Though TEM and STEM are more time intensive than many other frequently used analytical tools, the wealth of information accessible from those techniques is impressive. Not only can we obtain exceptional image resolution, it is additionally possible to characterize crystallographic phase, crystallographic orientation (using diffraction mode experiments), generate elemental maps (by using EDS or EELS), and acquire images highlighting elemental contrast (dark field mode). These can all be accomplished from precisely located nm sized areas. STEM and TEM are perfect failure analysis tools for thin film and IC samples.
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- Identification of nm sized defects on integrated circuits, including embedded particles and residues at the bottom of vias.
- Determination of crystallographic phases as a function of distance from an interface.
- Nanoparticle characterization: Core/shell investigations, agglomeration, effects of annealing...
- Catalyst support coverage.
- Ultra small area elemental maps.
- III-V super lattice characterization
- Crystal defect characterization
Signal Detected: Transmitted electrons, scattered electrons, secondary electrons, x-rays
Elements Detected: B-U (EDS)
Detection Limits: 0.1-1at%
Imaging/Mapping: Yes (EDS, EELS)
Ultimate Lateral Resolution: <0.2nm
- The ultimate elemental mapping resolution of any analytical technique.
- Sub 0.2nm (2Å) image resolution.
- Small area crystallographic information
- Significant sample preparation time
- Samples are often prepared that are <100nm
- Some materials not stable to electron beam
- Compound Semiconductors
- Intergrated circuit
- Magnetic media
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