X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Analysis

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful nondestructive technique for characterizing crystalline materials. It provides information on structures, phases, preferred crystal orientations (texture), and other structural parameters, such as average grain size, crystallinity, strain, and crystal defects. X-ray diffraction peaks are X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Reflectivity (XRR) techniques from Evans Analytical Group (EAG).produced by constructive interference of a monochromatic beam of x-rays scattered at specific angles from each set of lattice planes in a sample. The peak intensities are determined by the distribution of atoms within the lattice. Consequently, the x-ray diffraction pattern is the fingerprint of periodic atomic arrangements in a given material. A search of the ICDD standard database of x-ray diffraction patterns enables quick phase identification for a large variety of crystalline samples.

Evans Analytical Group's® (EAG) multiple XRD systems are X-ray Diffraction, XRD Analysisequipped with optical modules that can be exchanged, depending on the analysis requirement, without affecting the accuracy of positioning. It is simple to change between line and point focus of the x-ray tube, enabling simple switching from a regular XRD configuration to a high-resolution XRD configuration. Different combinations of optical modules enable the analysis of powders, coatings, thin films, slurries, fabricated parts, or epitaxial films.

Main Applications of XRD Analysis

  • Identification/quantification of crystalline phase
  • Measurement of average crystallite size, strain, or micro-strain effects in bulk and thin-film samples
  • Quantification of preferred orientation (texture) in thin films, multi-layer stacks, and manufactured parts
  • Determination of the ratio of crystalline to amorphous material in bulk materials and thin-film samples

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  • Phase identification for a large variety of bulk and thin-film samples
  • Detecting crystalline minority phases (at concentrations greater than ~1%)
  • Determining crystallite size for polycrystalline films and materials
  • Determining percentage of material in crystalline form versus amorphous
  • Measuring sub-milligram loose powder or dried solution samples for phase identification
  • Analyzing films as thin as 50 angstroms for texture and phase behaviors
  • Determining strain and composition in epitaxial thin films
  • Determining surface offcut in single crystal materials
  • Measuring residual stress in bulk metals and ceramics

Signal Detected: Diffracted x-rays

Elements Detected: All elements, assuming they are present in a crystalline matrix

Detection Limits: Quantitative multiphase analysis: ~1%

External standard quantitative analysis: ~0.1%

Special quantitative analysis (quartz, polymorphs): ~0.02%

Minimum film thickness for phase identification: ~20 Angstroms

Depth Resolution: Adjustable sampling depth between ~20 Angstroms to ~30 microns, depending on material properties and x-ray incidence angles

Imaging/Mapping: None

Lateral Resolution/Probe Size: Point focus: 0.1mm to 0.5mm; Line focus 2mm to 12 mm

  • Nondestructive
  • Quantitative measurement of phase contents and texture orientation
  • Minimal or no sample preparation requirements
  • Ambient conditions for all analysis
  • Cannot identify amorphous materials
  • No depth profile information
  • Minimum spot size of ~50um
  • Aerospace
  • Automotive
  • Medical Implants
  • Compound Semiconductor
  • Data Storage
  • Displays
  • Electronics
  • Industrial Products
  • Lighting
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Photonics
  • Polymer
  • Semiconductor
  • Solar Photovoltaics
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