X-ray Reflectivity

Specular X-ray Reflectivity (XRR), a technique related to X-ray Diffraction (XRD), is becoming a widely used tool for the characterization of thin-film and multilayer structures. X-ray scattering at very small diffraction angles allows characterization of the electron density profiles of thin films down to a few tens of Ǻ. Using a simulation of the reflectivity pattern, a highly accurate x-ray reflectivitymeasurement of thickness, interface roughness, and layer density for either crystalline or amorphous thin films and multilayers can be obtained. No prior knowledge or assumptions regarding the optical properties of the films are required, unlike optical ellipsometry

Main Applications

  • Determination of thickness, interface roughness, and density for thin films and multi-layers

 

 

 

 

  • Highly accurate film thickness and density measurement
  • Measuring film or interface roughness
  • Measuring film uniformity across wafers
  • Measuring pore density and pore size of low-k films

Signal Detected: Reflected X-rays

Elements Detected: No elements are specifically detected, rather the electron density of the layers is measured. This, combined with knowledge of the layer composition, allows an exact determination of layer thickness and density.

Detection Limits: 30-100Ǻ minimum layer thickness

Depth Resolution: ~1% of measured thickness

Imaging/Mapping: Yes

Lateral Resolution/Probe Size: ~1cm

  • Whole wafer analysis (up to 300mm) as well as irregular and large samples
  • Mapping of full wafers
  • Conductor and insulator analysis
  • Optical properties of the film are not required for accurate thickness determination
  • Minimal or no sample preparation requirements
  • Ambient conditions for all analysis
  • Some knowledge of the expected basic sample structure (the order of layers and their approximate compositions) is needed in order to provide accurate density results
  • Maximum film thickness ~300nm
  • Compound Semiconductor
  • Data Storage
  • Defense
  • Displays
  • Electronics
  • Photonics
  • Semiconductor
  • Solar Photovoltaics
  • Telecommunication
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