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Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Development Services

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination…

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination products and other therapies. From designing IND-enabling studies to delivering full CMC analytical and QC support, we join your R&D team as a true partner. EAG scientists take time to understand both your commercial goals and the unique characteristics of your compound. We provide expert guidance to balance regulatory expectations with expediency and cost, and approach technical challenges with flexibility and resolve.

Materials Testing & Analysis

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity…

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity of analytical techniques or technical ingenuity of EAG. From polymers to composites, thin films to superalloys—we know how to leverage materials sciences to gain a competitive edge. At EAG, we don’t just perform testing, we drive commercial success—through thoughtfully designed investigations, technically superior analyses and expert interpretation of data.

Environmental Testing & Regulatory Compliance

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of…

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of active ingredients and formulations—from pesticides and pharmaceuticals to industrial chemicals and consumer products. Whether you are exploring “what if” scenarios, registering a new active ingredient or formulation, responding to a data call-in or seeking to understand the latest guidance, turn to EAG for technical excellence, sound advice, GLP-compliant study execution and expert interpretation.

Microelectronics Test & Engineering

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human…

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human life. In the world of technology, innovation and continuous improvement are imperatives—and being able to quickly and reliably test, debug, diagnose failures and take corrective action can make the difference between a doomed product launch and building a successful global brand. EAG offers you the world’s largest and most diverse collection of specialized analytical instrumentation, capacity to perform a variety of microelectronic tests in parallel, and the multi-disciplinary expertise required to draw true insight from data.

Custom Synthesis & Radiolabeling

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical…

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical and related industries than we do. From 14C and 3H radiolabeled clinical trial materials synthesized under cGMP, to stable-labeled active ingredients for metabolism and environmental fate/effects testing, turn to EAG. We have extensive experience with multi-step and other complex synthesis projects, and our comprehensive, in-house analytical services ensure quick turnaround of purity and structural confirmation.

Crop Biotechnology & Development

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years' experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address…

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years’ experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address the growing needs of the biotechnology crop industry. We offer a wide range of techniques required to fully characterize the event insertion and expressed proteins, as well as the various studies required to confirm the food, feed and environmental safety of products that represent the trait. From early-stage protein confirmation to GLP-compliant EDSP and allergenicity testing, we help you make faster, more informed development decisions and comply with evolving global regulations of genetically engineered crops.

Litigation Support & Expert Testimony

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes,…

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes, turn to EAG. We’ve provided technical consulting, analysis and expert testimony for hundreds of cases involving the aerospace, transportation, medical device, electronics, industrial and consumer product industries. Our team of experts understands the legal process and your need for responsiveness, effective communication, scientifically defensible opinion and confidentiality. From professional consulting to data review to trial preparation and expert witness testimony, ask EAG.

Techniques

Chromatography

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer…

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer look at the purity of your pharmaceutical or need to better understand an agrochemical’s components, EAG has the expertise to separate and evaluate any compound.

Mass Spectrometry

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and…

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and molecules in almost any pure or complex material to detect and obtain mass spectra of the components. We rely on decades of experience in mass spectrometry to provide our clients with precise analyses and the best detection limits.

Imaging

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images…

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images for various industries, from consumer electronics to nanotechnology. Using state-of-the-art equipment and innovative techniques, we conduct expert imaging to aid in failure analysis, dimensional analysis, process characterization, particle identification and more. If you want to investigate a material with angstrom scale resolution, you can count on EAG to get the job done quickly and precisely.

Spectroscopy

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and…

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and methodology with cutting-edge technology to analyze your organic, inorganic, metallic and composite materials for identification, compositional, structural and contaminant information. Whether you need expert spectroscopic analysis to improve your production process or to surmount a technical challenge, EAG is up to the task.

Physical/Chemical Characterization

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be…

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be done right, you can count on EAG. We offer a range of adaptable techniques and innovative methods to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of any compound. Our highly precise testing and analytical services will improve your production process, expedite R&D and help you conquer any technical challenge.

About

A Global Scientific Services Company

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and…

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and business. The scientists and engineers of EAG apply multi-disciplinary expertise, advanced analytical techniques and “we know how” resolve to answer complex questions that drive commerce around the world.

Our Customers

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and…

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and highly regulated industries. We help our customers innovate new and improved products, investigate manufacturing problems, perform advanced analyses to determine safety, efficacy and regulatory compliance, and protect their brands.

Our Company Culture

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win…

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win together.” Across all of our 20+ locations, you will find a true passion for science and the power of science to improve the world we live in. Hear what some of our ~1200 scientists, engineers and support personnel say about what it means to be part of EAG Laboratories.

Careers

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you.…

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you. Browse current openings now, and re-visit our careers page often.

How do you drive R&D productivity and keep up with regulations?

Adsorption coefficient relationships versus typical soil characteristics for different agrochemical classes

APPLICATION NOTE

By Mark Schick, B.S., and Marian Ponte, B.S.

INTRODUCTION

EAG-Hercules is a CRO specializing in Environmental Fate, Metabolism, and Analytical Chemistry. The Environmental Fate group has completed numerous GLP projects conducted under OPPTS/OCSPP guideline 835.1230 and OECD guideline 106 (Adsorption/Desorption by the Batch Equilibrium Method). The purpose of this poster is to evaluate the correlation between the soil sorption properties of various test substances and the characteristics of the test systems used in the studies.

The data set included 48 test substances of various types (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, antibiotics) from different chemical families (pyrethroids, nitrogen-containing compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, amides, pyrazoles), and 109 discrete soil and sediment samples of various types (sand, sandy loam, silt loam, loam, clay, etc.) from 79 sites.

The distribution coefficients for adsorption (Kd) for the test substances were plotted against five commonly relevant soil characteristics (percent organic matter, pH in water, pH in 0.01M CaCl2, cation exchange capacity, and percent clay). The coefficient of determination (r2) was then calculated. Please note that if a test substance was tested on one or two soils (e.g. “data gap” studies) then coefficients of determination were not determined considering that test substance alone.

All calculations were performed using Microsoft Excel.

EVALUATION OF FULL DATA SET

Unsurprisingly, when the data from all 48 test substances was evaluated on a single plot, little correlation was found between the soil adsorption coefficients and the five relevant soil characteristics [the highest r2 (0.02) was observed for percent organic carbon]. This is due to the wide range of test substances and soils tested, as Kd values ranged from less than 1 (hydrophilic compounds) to greater than 400,000 (extremely hydrophobic compounds).

Similarly, when the data from within each of the six groups was considered together, generally little correlation was found with the exception of a small group of amines (n=3). Even among families with similar chemistries and functional groups, Kd can vary greatly between test substances.

However, some general trends could be observed by comparing which soil characteristics were most frequently observed to have the highest correlation with Kd within each test substance.

PYRETHROIDS

Pyrethroids are a class of synthetic organic insecticides adapted from natural insecticides (pyrethrins) found in chrysanthemum flowers. These compounds are hydrophobic and have large Kd values as they preferentially adsorb onto the soil. Of the six chemical groups examined in this project, pyrethroids had by far the largest Kd values, with a median value of 502.

The percent organic carbon was the most relevant characteristic for four of the seven test substances in this class. Cation exchange capacity was the most relevant characteristic for two of the test substances. Percent clay was the most relevant characteristic for the final test substance in this class.

PYRAZOLES

This class of compounds containing a pyrazole moiety are used as fungicides, insecticides and/or herbicides. These compounds tend to have much lower Kd values than pyrethroids. Ten pyrazoles were included in the dataset, with a median Kd value of 12. For the nine compounds considered separately, percent clay was the most relevant soil characterestic for four of the compounds, with organic carbon content the most relevant for two compounds, and cation exchange capacity, pH in water, and pH in 0.01M CaCl2 the most relevant for one compound each.

This class of compounds containing a pyrazole moiety are used as fungicides, insecticides and/or herbicides. These compounds tend to have much lower Kd values than pyrethroids. Ten pyrazoles were included in the dataset, with a median Kd value of 12. For the nine compounds considered separately, percent clay was the most relevant soil characterestic for four of the compounds, with organic carbon content the most relevant for two compounds, and cation exchange capacity, pH in water, and pH in 0.01M CaCl2 the most relevant for one compound each.

AMIDES

Three amide insecticides were included in the data set. Amide insecticides are structurally similar to carbamates but are generally less reactive. These compounds tend to have low Kd values, with a median value of 1.9 for the group.

Unlike the other groups, amides did show some correlation among the entire group. Soil percent organic matter and cation exchange capacity showed the highest correlation to Kd, with r2 values of 0.67 and 0.43, respectively.

When considered separately, cation exchange capacity was the soil characteristic parameter most correlated to Kd, with r2 values exceeding 0.9 for all three compounds.

Unlike the other groups, amides did show some correlation among the entire group. Soil percent organic matter and cation exchange capacity showed the highest correlation to Kd, with r2 values of 0.67 and 0.43, respectively. When considered separately, cation exchange capacity was the soil characteristic parameter most correlated to Kd, with r2 values exceeding 0.9 for all three compounds.

SULFUR-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS

This group included organothiophosphate insecticides and other related compounds. A total of 14 compounds in this family were studied. Similar to amides, sulfur-containing compounds also tend to have low Kd values, with a median value of 2.4 for the group.

The pH of soil in 0.01M CaCl2 was the soil characteristic most frequently exhibiting the highest correlation to Kd for sulfurcontaining compounds, with three test substances yielding r-squared values in excess of 0.7. Percent clay and organic carbon content were the most correlated parameters for two compounds each, and cation exchange capacity was the most correlated for one compound.

The pH of soil in 0.01M CaCl2 was the soil characteristic most frequently exhibiting the highest correlation to Kd for sulfurcontaining compounds, with three test substances yielding r-squared values in excess of 0.7. Percent clay and organic carbon content were the most correlated parameters for two compounds each, and cation exchange capacity was the most correlated for one compound.

NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS (TRIAZOLES, UREAS)

This group included compounds such as triazoles and ureas. A total of 7 compounds in this group were studied. These compounds had moderate Kd values, with a median value of 16 for the group.

The percent organic matter was the soil characteristic most frequently exhibiting the highest correlation to Kd for nitrogenous compounds, with three test substances yielding r-squared values in excess of 0.73. Percent clay and pH in CaCl2 were the most highly correlated parameters for one compound each.

The percent organic matter was the soil characteristic most frequently exhibiting the highest correlation to Kd for nitrogenous compounds, with three test substances yielding r-squared values in excess of 0.73. Percent clay and pH in CaCl2 were the most highly correlated parameters for one compound each.

OTHER TEST SUBSTANCES

The final group included compounds not linked by specific chemistries, and included antibiotics, organophosphates, and biologics. A total of 7 compounds in this group were studied. These compounds had moderate Kd values, with a median value of 13 for the group.

Unsurprisingly, for such a varied group of chemicals various soil properties were relevant depending on the compound. Organic carbon content, pH in CaCl2, and clay content were the soil characteristics most frequently exhibiting the highest correlation to Kd, with two test substances each. Soil pH in water was the most highly correlated parameter for one compound.

The final group included compounds not linked by specific chemistries, and included antibiotics, organophosphates, and biologics. A total of 7 compounds in this group were studied. These compounds had moderate Kd values, with a median value of 13 for the group. Unsurprisingly, for such a varied group of chemicals various soil properties were relevant depending on the compound. Organic carbon content, pH in CaCl2, and clay content were the soil characteristics most frequently exhibiting the highest correlation to Kd, with two test substances each. Soil pH in water was the most highly correlated parameter for one compound.

The final group included compounds not linked by specific chemistries, and included antibiotics, organophosphates, and biologics. A total of 7 compounds in this group were studied. These compounds had moderate Kd values, with a median value of 13 for the group. Unsurprisingly, for such a varied group of chemicals various soil properties were relevant depending on the compound. Organic carbon content, pH in CaCl2, and clay content were the soil characteristics most frequently exhibiting the highest correlation to Kd, with two test substances each. Soil pH in water was the most highly correlated parameter for one compound.

CONCLUSIONS

Due to the wide range of chemical and soil properties, no definitive correlation was observed between soil characteristics and adsorption coefficients for the data set at large. However, some characteristics were more likely to show correlation to Kd. The results are summarized in the table below.

Based on this set of 39 compounds, organic carbon content was the soil characteristic most frequently correlated with the adsorption properties of the test substance. Percent clay (n=10) was also found to have frequent correlation with Kd. The pH of soil in CaCl2 and cation exchange capacity were less frequently found to be the most relevant soil characteristics for 7 test substances each, and the pH of soil in water was found to be the least relevant soil characteristic, with only 2 test substances showing the highest correlation between this Pyrethrin soil characteristic and Kd.

Based on this set of 39 compounds, organic carbon content was the soil characteristic most frequently correlated with the adsorption properties of the test substance. Percent clay (n=10) was also found to have frequent correlation with Kd. The pH of soil in CaCl2 and cation exchange capacity were less frequently found to be the most relevant soil characteristics for 7 test substances each, and the pH of soil in water was found to be the least relevant soil characteristic, with only 2 test substances showing the highest correlation between this Pyrethrin soil characteristic and Kd.