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Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Development Services

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination…

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination products and other therapies. From designing IND-enabling studies to delivering full CMC analytical and QC support, we join your R&D team as a true partner. EAG scientists take time to understand both your commercial goals and the unique characteristics of your compound. We provide expert guidance to balance regulatory expectations with expediency and cost, and approach technical challenges with flexibility and resolve.

Materials Testing & Analysis

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity…

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity of analytical techniques or technical ingenuity of EAG. From polymers to composites, thin films to superalloys—we know how to leverage materials sciences to gain a competitive edge. At EAG, we don’t just perform testing, we drive commercial success—through thoughtfully designed investigations, technically superior analyses and expert interpretation of data.

Environmental Testing & Regulatory Compliance

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of…

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of active ingredients and formulations—from pesticides and pharmaceuticals to industrial chemicals and consumer products. Whether you are exploring “what if” scenarios, registering a new active ingredient or formulation, responding to a data call-in or seeking to understand the latest guidance, turn to EAG for technical excellence, sound advice, GLP-compliant study execution and expert interpretation.

Microelectronics Test & Engineering

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human…

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human life. In the world of technology, innovation and continuous improvement are imperatives—and being able to quickly and reliably test, debug, diagnose failures and take corrective action can make the difference between a doomed product launch and building a successful global brand. EAG offers you the world’s largest and most diverse collection of specialized analytical instrumentation, capacity to perform a variety of microelectronic tests in parallel, and the multi-disciplinary expertise required to draw true insight from data.

Custom Synthesis & Radiolabeling

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical…

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical and related industries than we do. From 14C and 3H radiolabeled clinical trial materials synthesized under cGMP, to stable-labeled active ingredients for metabolism and environmental fate/effects testing, turn to EAG. We have extensive experience with multi-step and other complex synthesis projects, and our comprehensive, in-house analytical services ensure quick turnaround of purity and structural confirmation.

Crop Biotechnology & Development

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years' experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address…

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years’ experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address the growing needs of the biotechnology crop industry. We offer a wide range of techniques required to fully characterize the event insertion and expressed proteins, as well as the various studies required to confirm the food, feed and environmental safety of products that represent the trait. From early-stage protein confirmation to GLP-compliant EDSP and allergenicity testing, we help you make faster, more informed development decisions and comply with evolving global regulations of genetically engineered crops.

Litigation Support & Expert Testimony

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes,…

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes, turn to EAG. We’ve provided technical consulting, analysis and expert testimony for hundreds of cases involving the aerospace, transportation, medical device, electronics, industrial and consumer product industries. Our team of experts understands the legal process and your need for responsiveness, effective communication, scientifically defensible opinion and confidentiality. From professional consulting to data review to trial preparation and expert witness testimony, ask EAG.

Techniques

Chromatography

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer…

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer look at the purity of your pharmaceutical or need to better understand an agrochemical’s components, EAG has the expertise to separate and evaluate any compound.

Mass Spectrometry

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and…

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and molecules in almost any pure or complex material to detect and obtain mass spectra of the components. We rely on decades of experience in mass spectrometry to provide our clients with precise analyses and the best detection limits.

Imaging

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images…

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images for various industries, from consumer electronics to nanotechnology. Using state-of-the-art equipment and innovative techniques, we conduct expert imaging to aid in failure analysis, dimensional analysis, process characterization, particle identification and more. If you want to investigate a material with angstrom scale resolution, you can count on EAG to get the job done quickly and precisely.

Spectroscopy

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and…

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and methodology with cutting-edge technology to analyze your organic, inorganic, metallic and composite materials for identification, compositional, structural and contaminant information. Whether you need expert spectroscopic analysis to improve your production process or to surmount a technical challenge, EAG is up to the task.

Physical/Chemical Characterization

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be…

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be done right, you can count on EAG. We offer a range of adaptable techniques and innovative methods to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of any compound. Our highly precise testing and analytical services will improve your production process, expedite R&D and help you conquer any technical challenge.

About

A Global Scientific Services Company

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and…

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and business. The scientists and engineers of EAG apply multi-disciplinary expertise, advanced analytical techniques and “we know how” resolve to answer complex questions that drive commerce around the world.

Our Customers

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and…

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and highly regulated industries. We help our customers innovate new and improved products, investigate manufacturing problems, perform advanced analyses to determine safety, efficacy and regulatory compliance, and protect their brands.

Our Company Culture

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win…

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win together.” Across all of our 20+ locations, you will find a true passion for science and the power of science to improve the world we live in. Hear what some of our ~1200 scientists, engineers and support personnel say about what it means to be part of EAG Laboratories.

Careers

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you.…

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you. Browse current openings now, and re-visit our careers page often.

How do you drive R&D productivity and keep up with regulations?

Control Survival, Growth and Reproduction of the Marine Amphipod Leptocheirus Plumulosus in a Flow-Through Test System

APPLICATION NOTE

Jonathan Bartlett, Aquatic Biologist, EAG Laboratories, Easton, Md, USA

Static-renewal Leptocheirus life cycle study testing area

Static-renewal Leptocheirus life cycle study testing area

INTRODUCTION

Leptocheirus plumulosus is an estuarine amphipod widely distributed in mesohaline waters along the eastern seaboard of the US from Cape Cod, Massachusetts to northern Florida (1). Amphipods are representative of an important group of aquatic invertebrates, and are used in sediment toxicity tests based upon past history of use in the laboratory and the recommendations of the study guidelines.2,3 In addition, its relatively short life history makes it ideally suited for evaluating chronic sub-lethal endpoints such as growth and reproduction.1

The current USEPA guideline for the Leptocheirus life cycle prescribes a static-renewal test design. The static-renewal design has resulted in minimal to no test organism survival and has difficulty meeting the acceptability requirements for a successful study. Consequently, EAG Laboratories has adapted a flow-through test design similar to that which is being used on chronic sediment tests with freshwater amphipods. The studies described herein were performed based upon procedures in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Guidance Document, EPA 600/R-01/0202 and EPA 600/R-94/025.3

METHODS

Static-Renewal Leptocheirus Life Cycle Study Design

Flow-through Leptocheirus life cycle study testing area

Flow-through Leptocheirus life cycle study testing area

  • Organisms <48 hours old or sized between a 0.25-mm and 0.6-mm mesh screen
  • Feed- crushed Tetramin® fish food; 20mg per day between day 0 and 13; 40mg per day between day 14-27
  • Test chamber 1L glass beaker, 175mL sediment, 750mL overlying water
  • Manual renewal of 400mL of water 3x per week to maintain water quality by pouring or siphoning and replacing water by pouring over a baffle as to not disturb the sediment
  • Pooled male and female dry weights for growth evaluation

Flow-Through Leptocheirus Life Cycle Study Design

  • Known aged organisms collected <24 hours old held until 7 to 8 days old
  • Algae diet Phyto-Feast® diluted to a density of 1.0X109 cells/mL, ramped up during test. No food on day 0 or Day 28; Days 1-13: 1.0mL per compartment; Days 14-27: 2.0 mL per compartment
  • Test compartment 1500-mL glass beakers with a Nitex® mesh-covered hole on one side of the beaker, 2 cm (~240 mL) of sediment, 800 mL of overlying water
  • 2 exchanges of overlying water per day; passive water exchange through meshcovered hole
  • Dry weights separated by gender for growth evaluation

Test Acceptability Requirements

  • B80% survival of L.plumulosus in the control(s) at the end of the test.
  • Growth and reproduction will be measureable in the control(s).

RESULTS

Figure 1. Control Survival

Figure 1. Control Survival

Eight L.plumulosus life cycles studies conducted between 2015 and 2017 by EAG Laboratories met or exceeded the control validity criteria of greater than or equal to 80% survival (Figure 1). Mean negative control survival was 90.3 ± 6.8%; mean solvent control survival was 89.6 ± 5.7%.

Figure 2. Control Growth Rate

Figure 2. Control Growth Rate

Eight L.plumulosus life cycle tests conducted by EAG Laboratories between 2015 and 2017 met and exceeded the control validity criteria of measureable growth (Figure 2). Overall mean growth (mg/day) in the negative controls for males was 0.0774 ± 0.013 and for females was 0.0526 ± 0.016. Overall mean growth in the solvent control for males was 0.0783 ± 0.014 and for females was 0.0529 ± 0.009.

Figure 3. Control Reproduction

Figure 3. Control Reproduction

Eight L.plumulosus life cycle studies conducted by EAG Laboratories between 2015 and 2017 met and exceeded the validity criteria of measureable reproduction (Figure 3). The overall mean number of young per female for the negative control was 11.8 ± 3.6 neonates per female and for the solvent control was 12.1 ± 3.9 neonates per female.

CONCLUSIONS

The sediment team at EAG has become successful in running L. plumulosus life cycle toxicity tests. The amount of water, frequency of water exchanges and the passive exchange through the needles has improved the maintenance in water quality. The feed type and increased rates have aided in healthy growth in the organisms. The age of the organisms at the start of the study has helped improved the survival percentage. The changes made have enhanced the success rate overall of the L. plumulosus life cycle test at EAG Laboratories.

Using the flow-through test design we are now more consistently meeting or exceeding the control validity criteria for survival, growth, and reproduction.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Thank you so much! We Know How! Susan Thomas, Andy Nevitt, Hope Gerstler, Nanditha Billa, Liz Ostermann and Hank Krueger

REFERENCES

  1. Moore, D. W., Bridges, T. S., Gray, B. R. and Duke, B. M. (1997), Risk of ammonia toxicity during sediment bioassays with the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16: 1020–1027.
  2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2001. EPA 600/R-01/020: Method for Assessing the Chronic Toxicity of Marine and Estuarine Sediment-associated Contaminants with the Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.
  3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. EPA 600/R-94/025: Methods for Assessing the Toxicity of Sediment-associated Contaminants with Estuarine and Marine Amphipods.