Industries
Services

Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Development Services

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination…

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination products and other therapies. From designing IND-enabling studies to delivering full CMC analytical and QC support, we join your R&D team as a true partner. EAG scientists take time to understand both your commercial goals and the unique characteristics of your compound. We provide expert guidance to balance regulatory expectations with expediency and cost, and approach technical challenges with flexibility and resolve.

Materials Testing & Analysis

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity…

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity of analytical techniques of technical ingenuity of EAG. From polymers to composites, thin films to superalloys—we know how to leverage materials sciences to gain a competitive edge. At EAG, we don’t just perform testing, we drive commercial success—through thoughtfully designed investigations, technically superior analyses and expert interpretation of data.

Environmental Testing & Regulatory Compliance

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of…

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of active ingredients and formulations—from pesticides and pharmaceuticals to industrial chemicals and consumer products. Whether you are exploring “what if” scenarios, registering a new active ingredient or formulation, responding to a data call-in or seeking to understand the latest guidance, turn to EAG for technical excellence, sound advice, GLP-compliant study execution and expert interpretation.

Microelectronics Test & Engineering

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human…

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human life. In the world of technology, innovation and continuous improvement are imperatives—and being able to quickly and reliably test, debug, diagnose failures and take corrective action can make the difference between a doomed product launch and building a successful global brand. EAG offers you the world’s largest and most diverse collection of specialized analytical instrumentation, capacity to perform a variety of microelectronic tests in parallel, and the multi-disciplinary expertise required to draw true insight from data.

Custom Synthesis & Radiolabeling

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical…

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical and related industries than we do. From 14C and 3H radiolabeled clinical trial materials synthesized under cGMP, to stable-labeled active ingredients for metabolism and environmental fate/effects testing, turn to EAG. We have extensive experience with multi-step and other complex synthesis projects, and our comprehensive, in-house analytical services ensure quick turnaround of purity and structural confirmation.

Crop Biotechnology & Development

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years' experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address…

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years’ experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address the growing needs of the biotechnology crop industry. We offer a wide range of techniques required to fully characterize the event insertion and expressed proteins, as well as the various studies required to confirm the food, feed and environmental safety of products that represent the trait. From early-stage protein confirmation to GLP-compliant EDSP and allergenicity testing, we help you make faster, more informed development decisions and comply with evolving global regulations of genetically engineered crops.

Litigation Support & Expert Testimony

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes,…

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes, turn to EAG. We’ve provided technical consulting, analysis and expert testimony for hundreds of cases involving the aerospace, transportation, medical device, electronics, industrial and consumer product industries. Our team of experts understands the legal process and your need for responsiveness, effective communication, scientifically defensible opinion and confidentiality. From professional consulting to data review to trial preparation and expert witness testimony, ask EAG.

Techniques

Chromatography

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer…

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer look at the purity of your pharmaceutical or need to better understand an agrochemical’s components, EAG has the expertise to separate and evaluate any compound.

Mass Spectrometry

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and…

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and molecules in almost any pure or complex material to detect and obtain mass spectra of the components. We rely on decades of experience in mass spectrometry to provide our clients with precise analyses and the best detection limits.

Imaging

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images…

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images for various industries, from consumer electronics to nanotechnology. Using state-of-the-art equipment and innovative techniques, we conduct expert imaging to aid in failure analysis, dimensional analysis, process characterization, particle identification and more. If you want to investigate a material with angstrom scale resolution, you can count on EAG to get the job done quickly and precisely.

Spectroscopy

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and…

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and methodology with cutting-edge technology to analyze your organic, inorganic, metallic and composite materials for identification, compositional, structural and contaminant information. Whether you need expert spectroscopic analysis to improve your production process or to surmount a technical challenge, EAG is up to the task.

Physical/Chemical Characterization

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be…

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be done right, you can count on EAG. We offer a range of adaptable techniques and innovative methods to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of any compound. Our highly precise testing and analytical services will improve your production process, expedite R&D and help you conquer any technical challenge.

About

A Global Scientific Services Company

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and…

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and business. The scientists and engineers of EAG apply multi-disciplinary expertise, advanced analytical techniques and “we know how” resolve to answer complex questions that drive commerce around the world.

Our Customers

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and…

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and highly regulated industries. We help our customers innovate new and improved products, investigate manufacturing problems, perform advanced analyses to determine safety, efficacy and regulatory compliance, and protect their brands.

Our Company Culture

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win…

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win together.” Across all of our 20+ locations, you will find a true passion for science and the power of science to improve the world we live in. Hear what some of our ~1200 scientists, engineers and support personnel say about what it means to be part of EAG Laboratories.

Careers

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you.…

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you. Browse current openings now, and re-visit our careers page often.

How do you constantly innovate while driving down costs?

Quantification of Ultrathin Layers by AC-STEM-EDS

APPLICATION NOTE

INTRODUCTION

Recent advances in thin film technologies, and their materials properties, have led to significant characterization challenges. For instance, the characterization of quantum well structures on samples with anti-reflective textures, patterned substrates, or the presence of crystalline defects can be very complicated ultimately preventing the access to the basic information required. However, the accurate determination of ultrathin layer composition, thickness and morphology are critical for process development, evaluation of device quality or failure analysis. At EAG Laboratories we have developed a specific analytical protocol for such challenging characterization problems on these devices.

In this application note we show the effectiveness of thin layer quantification by Aberration Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (AC-STEM) coupled with an energy dispersive x-ray detector (STEM-EDS) for GaN-based samples.

AC-STEM Z-contrast image of GaN:InGaN multilayer stack.

Figure 1  AC-STEM Z-contrast image of GaN:InGaN multilayer stack. The AC-STEM shows clear atom stacks (round spheres) that indicate superb image resolution.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

As can be seen in Figure 1, the AC-STEM provides highly detailed images of the sample. This image clarity is not possible with traditional STEM or TEM images. With image resolution better than 1.4Å, AC-STEM can provide unparalleled layer thickness accuracy and detail.

In addition to excellent image quality, the AC-STEM coupled to an advanced x-ray detector allows for reliable quantification of GaN-based materials. As an example of the accuracy that can be obtained by AC-STEM-EDS, Table 1 shows the results comparing the measured values by AC-STEM-EDS and by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). RBS is used to create reference standards and is considered to be one of the most accurate analytical techniques for thick films. The agreement between RBS and AC-STEM-EDS is within the expected RBS measurement uncertainty of 5% (relative).

Table 1  In concentration on a InGaN thick film standard sample.

AC-STEM image from an ultrathin layer in an LED device.

Figure 2  AC-STEM image from an ultrathin layer in an LED device.

Elemental concentration from layer in Figure 2.

Table 2  Elemental concentration from layer in Figure 2.

Table 2 shows the quantitative composition measured from a 3.25nm layer in an InGaN structure using AC-STEM-EDS under the same analytical conditions used for the RBS standard. For many important material systems (including III-V, III-Nitride, and II-VI devices) quantified composition cannot be realized by any other method, such as SIMS. It is important to note that because the analytical conditions on the calibration standard and the thin film are the same, the accuracy of the data in Table 2 is identical to that obtained from the bulk film shown in Table 1.

AC-STEM-EDS data showing Al (red), Ga (blue) and In (yellow) distributions in a InGaN quantum well structure.

Figure 3  Al (red), Ga (blue) and In (yellow) distributions in a InGaN quantum well structure.

In addition to excellent quantitative results on these challenging samples, AC-STEM-EDS can provide vivid images of elemental distributions as shown in Figure 3. These maps can provide unique information regarding sample composition and defect analysis, all with nm scale resolution.

Linescans are another method of measuring elemental distributions that can provide an additional level of information. Figure 4 shows a line scan of the same sample, showing the atomic fractions of Aluminum and Indium in the GaN sample. Note that the thinnest Indium layers on the right side of the scan are on the order of 1.5nm thick. The quantification accuracy of these layers has not yet been determined. However, in the thicker layers (3.25nm) the concentration values are valid due to the previously mentioned analytical conditions and the probe size being significantly smaller than the film thickness.

SUMMARY

We have shown in this application note that it is possible to accurately quantify ultrathin layers of a GaN-based device. This method may be extended to investigations on other III-V, III-Nitride, and II-V materials. This AC-STEM-EDS data, coupled to SIMS profiles are essential to understand the complex material systems that are now commonplace in todays advanced electronic devices.

AC-STEM-EDS Standardless quantitative line scan of Al (red) and In (blue) atom fractions. The wide variations in atomic fraction are due to the high pixel resolution required for this data type.

Figure 4  Standardless quantitative line scan of Al (red) and In (blue) atom fractions. The wide variations in atomic fraction are due to the high pixel resolution required for this data type. For quantitative analysis, as shown in Tables 1 and 2, the data are collected in a way to significantly improve these statistics.