Industries
Services

Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Development Services

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination…

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination products and other therapies. From designing IND-enabling studies to delivering full CMC analytical and QC support, we join your R&D team as a true partner. EAG scientists take time to understand both your commercial goals and the unique characteristics of your compound. We provide expert guidance to balance regulatory expectations with expediency and cost, and approach technical challenges with flexibility and resolve.

Materials Testing & Analysis

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity…

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity of analytical techniques or technical ingenuity of EAG. From polymers to composites, thin films to superalloys—we know how to leverage materials sciences to gain a competitive edge. At EAG, we don’t just perform testing, we drive commercial success—through thoughtfully designed investigations, technically superior analyses and expert interpretation of data.

Environmental Testing & Regulatory Compliance

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of…

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of active ingredients and formulations—from pesticides and pharmaceuticals to industrial chemicals and consumer products. Whether you are exploring “what if” scenarios, registering a new active ingredient or formulation, responding to a data call-in or seeking to understand the latest guidance, turn to EAG for technical excellence, sound advice, GLP-compliant study execution and expert interpretation.

Microelectronics Test & Engineering

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human…

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human life. In the world of technology, innovation and continuous improvement are imperatives—and being able to quickly and reliably test, debug, diagnose failures and take corrective action can make the difference between a doomed product launch and building a successful global brand. EAG offers you the world’s largest and most diverse collection of specialized analytical instrumentation, capacity to perform a variety of microelectronic tests in parallel, and the multi-disciplinary expertise required to draw true insight from data.

Custom Synthesis & Radiolabeling

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical…

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical and related industries than we do. From 14C and 3H radiolabeled clinical trial materials synthesized under cGMP, to stable-labeled active ingredients for metabolism and environmental fate/effects testing, turn to EAG. We have extensive experience with multi-step and other complex synthesis projects, and our comprehensive, in-house analytical services ensure quick turnaround of purity and structural confirmation.

Crop Biotechnology & Development

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years' experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address…

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years’ experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address the growing needs of the biotechnology crop industry. We offer a wide range of techniques required to fully characterize the event insertion and expressed proteins, as well as the various studies required to confirm the food, feed and environmental safety of products that represent the trait. From early-stage protein confirmation to GLP-compliant EDSP and allergenicity testing, we help you make faster, more informed development decisions and comply with evolving global regulations of genetically engineered crops.

Litigation Support & Expert Testimony

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes,…

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes, turn to EAG. We’ve provided technical consulting, analysis and expert testimony for hundreds of cases involving the aerospace, transportation, medical device, electronics, industrial and consumer product industries. Our team of experts understands the legal process and your need for responsiveness, effective communication, scientifically defensible opinion and confidentiality. From professional consulting to data review to trial preparation and expert witness testimony, ask EAG.

Techniques

Chromatography

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer…

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer look at the purity of your pharmaceutical or need to better understand an agrochemical’s components, EAG has the expertise to separate and evaluate any compound.

Mass Spectrometry

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and…

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and molecules in almost any pure or complex material to detect and obtain mass spectra of the components. We rely on decades of experience in mass spectrometry to provide our clients with precise analyses and the best detection limits.

Imaging

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images…

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images for various industries, from consumer electronics to nanotechnology. Using state-of-the-art equipment and innovative techniques, we conduct expert imaging to aid in failure analysis, dimensional analysis, process characterization, particle identification and more. If you want to investigate a material with angstrom scale resolution, you can count on EAG to get the job done quickly and precisely.

Spectroscopy

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and…

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and methodology with cutting-edge technology to analyze your organic, inorganic, metallic and composite materials for identification, compositional, structural and contaminant information. Whether you need expert spectroscopic analysis to improve your production process or to surmount a technical challenge, EAG is up to the task.

Physical/Chemical Characterization

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be…

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be done right, you can count on EAG. We offer a range of adaptable techniques and innovative methods to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of any compound. Our highly precise testing and analytical services will improve your production process, expedite R&D and help you conquer any technical challenge.

About

A Global Scientific Services Company

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and…

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and business. The scientists and engineers of EAG apply multi-disciplinary expertise, advanced analytical techniques and “we know how” resolve to answer complex questions that drive commerce around the world.

Our Customers

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and…

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and highly regulated industries. We help our customers innovate new and improved products, investigate manufacturing problems, perform advanced analyses to determine safety, efficacy and regulatory compliance, and protect their brands.

Our Company Culture

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win…

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win together.” Across all of our 20+ locations, you will find a true passion for science and the power of science to improve the world we live in. Hear what some of our ~1200 scientists, engineers and support personnel say about what it means to be part of EAG Laboratories.

Careers

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you.…

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you. Browse current openings now, and re-visit our careers page often.

How do you drive R&D productivity and keep up with regulations?

Looking Forward: Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Testing Today and Beyond

APPLICATION NOTE

J.M. Griebel and D.S. Brougher, EAG Laboratories, Easton, Md., USA

ABSTRACT

Acute aquatic invertebrate toxicology testing has been primarily focused on a few select species that includes daphnia (D. magna), the saltwater mysid (Americamysis bahia), and the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). As more is learned about the properties and environmental consequences (e.g. solubility, stability, degradation and half-life) of today’s chemicals a call for more diversified species sensitivity profiles has been requested. EAG Laboratories (formerly Wildlife International Inc.) has been actively working with a number of other important invertebrate species to determine species sensitivity distributions. Protocols for many of these species have often cited the Daphnia guideline for acute testing (1,2). Experience has shown that there are species specific ecological requirements and challenges (e.g. sediment/substrate requirements, cannibalism, feeding during testing) that are not addressed by the daphnia guideline. A need for species specific guidelines appears to be in order. Our recommendation is that the current guidelines for acute toxicity testing with invertebrates be reviewed and updated to accommodate the diversity of organisms being included in risk assessment testing in the future.

INTRODUCTION

In recent years invertebrate toxicity testing has become increasingly important in the registration process for today’s modern chemicals. The call for broader species sensitivity distribution testing has become more common place. In 2016 new EPA guidelines (OCSPP) were adopted for use in toxicity testing. However, no new species specific guidelines were adopted. Including the OECD guidelines, current invertebrate guidelines are in place that include daphnia, saltwater mysids, gammarus, and chironomids. The number of invertebrate species being requested for risk assessment studies has steadily increased in recent years. Species tested by EAG include the larval stage freshwater insects (mayfly – Neocloeon triangulifer, caddisfly – Chimarra atterima, stonefly – Soyedina carolinensis), chironomids (C. riparius and C. dilutus), crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), freshwater amphipods (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, Hyalella azteca), lumbriculus (Lumbriculus variegatus), and the daphnids (D. pulex and Ceriodaphnia dubia).

Absent specific guidance for testing most of these species, protocols for many of these species have cited the daphnia guidelines for acute testing. A number of the species mentioned above have very specific culture requirements requiring modification of the testing regime in order to ensure testing acceptability requirements for control survival are met. Others are wild caught and require specific acclimation procedures prior to use in a test. Sediment/substrate requirements, cannibalism, and whether or not to feed during the test offer additional testing challenges that are not addressed by daphnia guidelines. Typically the challenge in successful acute testing is ensuring control organisms meet the acceptability requirement for control survival (>90%). Our experience has shown that modifying the test design to meet species specific ecological requirements has improved the success rate with non-typical test species. A need for further species specific guidelines is apparent and would aid in increasing the percentage of studies that meet guideline criteria, while also reducing the amount of tests repeated due to non-treatment related mortality.

METHODS

Acute Testing – typically 48 (daphnia, chironomid, flies) or 96 (mysid, gammarus, crayfish) hour tests.

Test design typically determined by chemical stability

  • Can be Static, Static-Renewal (24 or 48 hour renewals) or Flow-through

Species selectivity can also determine study design

  • Can the organism survive in a Flow – Through test system?
  • May not be able to withstand the high flow rates, turbulence or disturbances incurred with test solution delivery
  • Rapid loss of feed as test chamber contents are turned over

May need to consider species behavior when determining study design

  • Sediment dwellers really need some type of substrate to be added to the test chamber, even in static or semi-static tests
  • Cannibalism – Structure provided in the test chambers (e.g. pvc tiles) affords protection from aggressive cohorts
  • Can the organism survive without feeding?
  • Some species simply cannot last 48 or 96 hours without food (ceriodaphnia), or become highly cannibalistic (gammarids, crayfish) when not fed

Species availability and life stage should be considered when determining study type or design

  • Many field collected species are only available at certain times during the year (stonefly, caddisfly), or are preferably obtained at specific times (e.g. gammarus – Spring and early Summer)
  • Typically immature organisms are preferred so as to avoid biasing the test
    • Chironomids can reproduce asexually and cultures should be “synchronized” prior to testing to reduce the likelihood of them reproducing during the test and confounding the results of the study
    • Oyster spawning invalidates a study if it is observed during a test (results in lack of shell deposition)

OBSERVATIONS

Species requiring substrate:

  • Chironomids: typically sediment dwellers, a small amount of sand added to the test chamber improves control survival and study success
  • Gammarus/Crayfish: cannibalistic, small pvc tiles or mesh provided a shelter and /or protection from aggressive cohorts
  • Hyalellla: small nylon mesh squares added to the test chambers, especially in flow-through studies, are helpful in providing a substrate for those organism that prefer to be “attached “ to the bottom

Age of the organism:

  • Younger, uniform age and size is typically best, particularly for cannibalistic species

Feeding during the test:

  • Preferred whenever possible, but can lead to dissolved oxygen problems, requiring gentle aeration added to the study. Important for cannibalistic species

CONCLUSIONS

Sponsors requests in recent years would suggest increased demand for a broader range of invertebrate species for testing. The unique requirements of those species, makes adaptation of additional species specific guidelines imperative.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank the following personnel for their expertise with these findings: Christian Disque, Lois O’ Boyle, Joshua Rogers, Michelle Stence and Rachel Woodward.

REFERENCES

  1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. Series 850–Ecological Effects Test Guidelines, OCSPP 850.1010: Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater Daphnids.
  2. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2004. OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, Guideline 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilization Test. Adopted 13 April 2004.
  3. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2011. OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Guideline 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilization Test. Adopted 28 July 2011.
  4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. Series 850-Ecological Effects Test Guidelines, OCSPP 850.1020: Gammarid Amphipod Acute Toxicity Test.