Industries

Aerospace & Defense

EAG is your R&D partner, working with aerospace and defense manufacturers and suppliers to create faster, safer and more reliable aircraft and components. We use the most advanced…

EAG is your R&D partner, working with aerospace and defense manufacturers and suppliers to create faster, safer and more reliable aircraft and components. We use the most advanced analytical methodologies to answer complex engineering, materials and manufacturing problems, from evaluating the purity of new materials to confirming the characteristics of ceramic matrix composites. For research, development and production, we work alongside your technical staff to formulate and troubleshoot the next generation of aerospace and defense materials.

Chemicals & Basic Materials

For over 50 years, EAG’s scientists have applied advanced analytical techniques to solve tough problems and support R&D activities for manufacturers and users of a wide variety…

For over 50 years, EAG’s scientists have applied advanced analytical techniques to solve tough problems and support R&D activities for manufacturers and users of a wide variety of chemicals and materials. EAG offers reliable analytical results, development support for novel products, and answers to complex problems for manufacturers of chemicals used in metals, fibers, plastics, coatings, adhesives, construction materials, textiles, lubricants and more.

Consumer Products

Consumer products manufacturers and partners turn to EAG to answer R&D questions, ensure supply chain quality, respond to regulatory requirements and ensure well-supported legal…

Consumer products manufacturers and partners turn to EAG to answer R&D questions, ensure supply chain quality, respond to regulatory requirements and ensure well-supported legal arguments. EAG scientists have helped all types of consumer products companies accelerate innovation, resolve manufacturing concerns and comply with evolving regulations.

Food & Agriculture

Drive R&D productivity and keep pace with evolving environmental regulations. From agrochemical development to evaluating innovative packaging solutions, EAG scientists support…

Drive R&D productivity and keep pace with evolving environmental regulations.

From agrochemical development to evaluating innovative packaging solutions, EAG scientists support the agriculture/food s industry with scientific expertise required to enhance shelf life, ensure product safety and understand environmental impact. Whether in need of food quality investigations or help supporting regulatory filing of new chemicals, ask EAG. WE KNOW HOW.

Law

When a business’s brand and reputation is at stake, clients turn to EAG’s litigation support services for dependable scientific answers. Since 1959, our scientific expertise,…

When a business’s brand and reputation is at stake, clients turn to EAG’s litigation support services for dependable scientific answers. Since 1959, our scientific expertise, testing and testimony have supported legal strategies for intellectual property, product liability and insurance cases. Our scientists offer expertise in technology, life sciences, electronics, industrial and consumer products, having tested a broad array of materials for legal challenges. We understand the unique needs of legal projects – speed, effective communication, reliability and confidentiality.

Medical Device & Diagnostics

From initial concept and prototypes to verification/validation, submission and launch, EAG Laboratories is your partner in medical device development. From implant…

From initial concept and prototypes to verification/validation, submission and launch, EAG Laboratories is your partner in medical device development. From implant biocompatibility studies to surface chemistry for contact lenses, we have the experience and techniques to characterize, test and assure purity of medical devices and their materials, components, products and packaging. By utilizing our unique expertise in materials sciences, chemistry, electronics and regulatory support, EAG empowers device companies to create new ways to heal and improve patient quality of life.

Pharmaceuticals

Overcome R&D roadblocks with technical and regulatory know-how. For over two decades, EAG scientists have helped solve complex issues for the pharmaceutical Industry. Using…

Overcome R&D roadblocks with technical and regulatory know-how. For over two decades, EAG scientists have helped solve complex issues for the pharmaceutical Industry. Using multidisciplinary science and engineering, we help improve product development efficiency, avoid regulatory setbacks and uncover sources of problematic manufacturing issues. From GLP and cGMP studies to contaminant and packaging investigations, the scientists of EAG support every phase of the product lifecycle.

Technology

For the high-tech industry, EAG is the leader in materials characterization, surface analysis, microscopy and electronics testing. Our scientists and engineers troubleshoot and…

For the high-tech industry, EAG is the leader in materials characterization, surface analysis, microscopy and electronics testing. Our scientists and engineers troubleshoot and solve issues with consumer electronics, chip packages, printed circuit boards, displays, sensors, high-speed communications and more. We meet the demanding needs of technology innovation, enabling our clients to have confidence in their research & development, supply chains, and ultimately their manufacturing processes

Services

Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Development Services

EAG Laboratories’ pharmaceutical development services group is now part of Eurofins Biopharma Product Testing. Eurofins BioPharma Product Testing offers…

EAG Laboratories’ pharmaceutical development services group is now part of Eurofins Biopharma Product Testing.

Eurofins BioPharma Product Testing offers unprecedented, multi-location capacity and unmatched expertise through the largest harmonized network of bio/pharma product testing laboratories worldwide. From performing IND-enabling studies to full CMC analytical and QC support, we join your R&D team as a true partner, providing expert guidance to balance regulatory expectations with expediency and cost, and approach technical challenges with flexibility and resolve.

Materials Testing & Analysis

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity…

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity of analytical techniques or technical ingenuity of EAG. From polymers to composites, thin films to superalloys—we know how to leverage materials sciences to gain a competitive edge. At EAG, we don’t just perform testing, we drive commercial success—through thoughtfully designed investigations, technically superior analyses and expert interpretation of data.

Environmental Testing & Regulatory Compliance

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of…

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of active ingredients and formulations—from pesticides and pharmaceuticals to industrial chemicals and consumer products. Whether you are exploring “what if” scenarios, registering a new active ingredient or formulation, responding to a data call-in or seeking to understand the latest guidance, turn to EAG for technical excellence, sound advice, GLP-compliant study execution and expert interpretation.

Microelectronics Test & Engineering

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human…

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human life. In the world of technology, innovation and continuous improvement are imperatives—and being able to quickly and reliably test, debug, diagnose failures and take corrective action can make the difference between a doomed product launch and building a successful global brand. EAG offers you the world’s largest and most diverse collection of specialized analytical instrumentation, capacity to perform a variety of microelectronic tests in parallel, and the multi-disciplinary expertise required to draw true insight from data.

Custom Synthesis & Radiolabeling

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical…

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical and related industries than we do. From 14C and 3H radiolabeled clinical trial materials synthesized under cGMP, to stable-labeled active ingredients for metabolism and environmental fate/effects testing, turn to EAG. We have extensive experience with multi-step and other complex synthesis projects, and our comprehensive, in-house analytical services ensure quick turnaround of purity and structural confirmation.

Crop Biotechnology & Development

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years' experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address…

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years’ experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address the growing needs of the biotechnology crop industry. We offer a wide range of techniques required to fully characterize the event insertion and expressed proteins, as well as the various studies required to confirm the food, feed and environmental safety of products that represent the trait. From early-stage protein confirmation to GLP-compliant EDSP and allergenicity testing, we help you make faster, more informed development decisions and comply with evolving global regulations of genetically engineered crops.

Litigation Support & Expert Testimony

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes,…

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes, turn to EAG. We’ve provided technical consulting, analysis and expert testimony for hundreds of cases involving the aerospace, transportation, medical device, electronics, industrial and consumer product industries. Our team of experts understands the legal process and your need for responsiveness, effective communication, scientifically defensible opinion and confidentiality. From professional consulting to data review to trial preparation and expert witness testimony, ask EAG.

Techniques

Chromatography

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer…

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer look at the purity of your pharmaceutical or need to better understand an agrochemical’s components, EAG has the expertise to separate and evaluate any compound.

Mass Spectrometry

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and…

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and molecules in almost any pure or complex material to detect and obtain mass spectra of the components. We rely on decades of experience in mass spectrometry to provide our clients with precise analyses and the best detection limits.

Imaging

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images…

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images for various industries, from consumer electronics to nanotechnology. Using state-of-the-art equipment and innovative techniques, we conduct expert imaging to aid in failure analysis, dimensional analysis, process characterization, particle identification and more. If you want to investigate a material with angstrom scale resolution, you can count on EAG to get the job done quickly and precisely.

Spectroscopy

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and…

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and methodology with cutting-edge technology to analyze your organic, inorganic, metallic and composite materials for identification, compositional, structural and contaminant information. Whether you need expert spectroscopic analysis to improve your production process or to surmount a technical challenge, EAG is up to the task.

Physical/Chemical Characterization

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be…

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be done right, you can count on EAG. We offer a range of adaptable techniques and innovative methods to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of any compound. Our highly precise testing and analytical services will improve your production process, expedite R&D and help you conquer any technical challenge.

About

A Global Scientific Services Company

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and…

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and business. The scientists and engineers of EAG apply multi-disciplinary expertise, advanced analytical techniques and “we know how” resolve to answer complex questions that drive commerce around the world.

Our Customers

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and…

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and highly regulated industries. We help our customers innovate new and improved products, investigate manufacturing problems, perform advanced analyses to determine safety, efficacy and regulatory compliance, and protect their brands.

Our Company Culture

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win…

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win together.” Across all of our 20+ locations, you will find a true passion for science and the power of science to improve the world we live in. Hear what some of our ~1200 scientists, engineers and support personnel say about what it means to be part of EAG Laboratories.

Careers

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you.…

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you. Browse current openings now, and re-visit our careers page often.

How do you drive R&D productivity and keep up with regulations?

Selection of Brazilian Soils for Guideline Environmental Fate Studies

WHITE PAPER

Marian Ponte, Senior Scientific Advisor for Environmental Fate and Metabolism

Brazil is the third-largest agricultural producer in the world and, as such, one of the top consumers of agrochemicals. The market for agrochemical use in Brazil has increased exponentially in the last 30 years, and today, Brazil’s domestic pesticide sales ($11.5 billion in 2013) are second only to the U.S. market. As the market continues to expand, more companies are rushing to register agrochemicals for use in Brazil.

As a global contract research organization, EAG Laboratories has conducted a number of environmental fate studies to satisfy Brazilian registration guidelines. One thing sponsors have in common is the need for understanding Brazilian guidelines — more specifically, those that deal with environmental risk assessment. Although the guidelines for registration of agrochemicals in Brazil have been around for almost 30 years, often it can be difficult to navigate the legal documents to extract the specific requirements that apply to specific studies.

Such is the case of the Brazilian soil requirements for environmental fate guideline studies. In this paper, we have compiled information to shed some light on the soil requirements for Brazil registration as well as a brief introduction to the unique characteristics of Brazilian soils.

In 1989, the so-called “Pesticide Law” — regulating the chemical substances used for controlling pests and disease in agriculture (Law No. 7,802/’89) — was enacted and further revised by decrees No. 4,074/2002 and 6,913/2009.

The registration of agrochemicals in Brazil involves three federal agencies: the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA); the Ministry of Health (ANVISA); and the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) under the Ministry of Environment (MMA). MAPA is responsible for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of the agrochemical and issuing the certificate of registration. ANVISA is responsible for the toxicological assessment of the agrochemical and its classification as well as establishing tolerance limits (MRLs). IBAMA is responsible for the environmental assessment of the agrochemical and its potential environmental risks.

The registration of agrochemicals in Brazil involves three federal agencies: the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA); the Ministry of Health (ANVISA); and the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) under the Ministry of Environment (MMA).

The registration of agrochemicals in Brazil involves three federal agencies: the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA); the Ministry of Health (ANVISA); and the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) under the Ministry of Environment (MMA).

As an active Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development partner, Brazil is an adherent to the Mutual Acceptance of Data in the assessment of chemicals. The OECD MAD system allows the results of a variety of safety tests performed on chemicals and chemical products to be shared across OECD. MAD requires the testing be carried out using OECD standards for test methods, which means requirements for registration of agrochemicals in Brazil follow OECD guidelines. However, due to its unique geography, the environmental assessment of chemicals in Brazil requires specific studies be conducted using Brazilian soils.

Brazil’s agricultural zones are located mainly in the South and the Center-West. The South region has a semitropical, milder, wetter climate with coastal influence and is where most of the crops (rice, wheat, soybeans, corn, coffee, etc.) historically have been grown. The Center-West region is a much warmer tropical zone and includes the Cerrado savanna, which originally was considered unsuitable for food production.

The Brazilian soil classification system is the domain of Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA) under MAPA. EMBRAPA published the original Brazilian soil-classification system in 1999 and followed with a revised edition in 2006.

The Brazilian soil classification system is the domain of Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA) under MAPA. EMBRAPA published the original Brazilian soil-classification system in 1999 and followed with a revised edition in 2006.

In the last 30 years, modern soil-science advances have made it possible for the Cerrado lands to be utilized for productive agriculture, using a rotation system of pasture, grains and oil seeds. The soils in the Brazil agricultural regions are naturally acidic, with a high content of aluminum and iron oxides and deficient in calcium, phosphorus and nitrogen. Many of Brazil’s soils have unique physicochemical characteristics that make it difficult to assess the environmental impact of chemicals when using studies conducted in typical European and U.S. soils. For this reason, Brazil authorities require environmental fate studies in soils to be conducted using four Brazilian soils.

The Brazilian soil classification system is the domain of Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) under MAPA. EMBRAPA published the original Brazilian soil-classification system in 1999 and followed with a revised edition in 2006. The new classification system is based on the concepts and criteria from USDA soil taxonomy and the FAO/UNESCO soil units of the world. The system classifies Brazilian soils in 13 soil classes in the first level (orders) and subcategories in five separate descendent levels, many of which are restricted to Brazilian soils.

In 2004, EMBRAPA issued Technical Note 11 to define the most common agricultural soils in order to issue a recommendation of soils to be used in the evaluation of environmental risk under the instructional normative of IBAMA (Portaria Normativa No. 84/96). According to EMBRAPA, the most representative agricultural soils found in Brazil belong to the order of argisols (Argissolos), latosols (Latossolos) and neosols (Neossolos Quartzarênicos). Less predominant in agricultural zones are nitosols (Nitossolos) and gleysols (Gleissolos).

Latossolos are well-drained deep soils with low clay content and organic matter. Argissolos are shallow-depth soils with higher clay content and organic matter. Neossolos quartzarênicos are very deep soils with low clay content and organic matter. Nitossolos are moderately deep soils rich in clay and organic matter. Gleissolos are very shallow soils with high organic matter and significant drainage restrictions. The key physicochemical parameters for each soil to be used in the evaluation of environmental fate of agrochemicals were a) pH in water and KCl; b) change in pH (calculated as the difference in pH in KCl and in water); c) organic carbon content; d) clay content; e) bulk density; and f) porosity. The ranges were adopted based in median values of eight-40 different soil profiles.

The final selection of soils was issued by IBAMA in Annex XIII under Article 7 of the Instructional Normative and included one soil from each of the following classes: Latossolos, Argissolos, Neossolos Quartzarênicos and Gleissolos. The table below summarizes the range of values of key physicochemical characteristics expected for each soil type when collected from the A horizon (0-12 cm).

Range of values of key physicochemical characteristics expected for each soil type when collected from the A horizon (0-12 cm).

Range of values of key physicochemical characteristics expected for each soil type when collected from the A horizon (0-12 cm).

Brazilian authorities require that an aerobic soil metabolism study be conducted using soils from each of these categories to evaluate the degradation rate and pathway of the agrochemical under typical Brazilian agricultural conditions. Due to their unique properties, leaching potential in Brazilian soils must also be evaluated; and for this, a batch equilibrium sorption as well as parent-column leaching studies also are required to be conducted with these soils.

As a final note, it is vital to have access to sources in Brazil that can provide soils from the different agricultural regions. It is also important to note that the laboratory conducting the studies must have import permits and procedures in place to be able to receive, maintain and work with soils originating from Brazil.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Senior Scientific Advisor for Environmental Fate and Metabolism, at EAG Laboratories, Marian Ponte has worked for more than 26 years in the agrochemical industry in the area of Environmental, starting at PTRL West in 1991 and becoming part of EAG Laboratories after its acquisition of PTRL in 2012. The author has conducted hundreds of studies to satisfy global guidelines, including U.S. EPA, OECD, Japan’s JMAFF, Canada’s PMRA and Brazilian guidelines. She served as Director of the Environmental Fate group at EAG — Hercules (formerly PTRL West) — before becoming the Senior Scientific Advisor for Environmental Fate and Metabolism in the Life Sciences Division at EAG Laboratories in September of 2016.

References
  1. Agriculture in Brazil and Argentina/ WRS-01-3, Economic Research Service/USDA, Chapter 2
  2. Buol, Sanley, W., Soils and Agriculture in Central-West and North Brazil, Sci. Agri. (Piracicaba, Braz.), vol. 66, n. 5, p. 697-707, September/October 2009.
  3. Calaça, H., Registro de Agrotoxicos no Brasil – parte II, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 2016.
  4. Consulta Publica No. 1 do Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Renováveis – IBAMA, Diário Oficial da União de 15 de Agosto de 2003.
  5. Da Rocha, C., Pelaez, V., Ambiente & Sociedade, v. XIX, n. 3, Sao Paulo, p 215-232, jul-set., 2016.
  6. Ferreira G., M.A., Spadotto, Cl.A., Subsídio à Avaliação de Risco Ambiental de Agrotóxicos em Solos Agrícolas Brasileiros, Comunicado Técnico 11, EMBRAPA, ISSN 15 16-8638, Sao Paulo, 2004.
  7. EMBRAPA. Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos. Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, 2 ed. Rio de Janeiro: Embrapa Solos, 2016.
  8. IBAMA. Portaria Normativa No. 84/96. Brasilia, 1996, 35 p.
  9. Jacomine, P.K.T., A Nova Classificação Brasileira de Solos, Anais da Academia Pernambucana de Ciência Agronômica, Recife, vols. 5-6, p.161 179. 2008- 2009.
  10. Lamy, A.C., MRL Policy and Regulation in Brazil, 2011 MRL Workshop, California Specialty Crops Council, June 1-2, 2011.
  11. OECD iLibrary. Active with Brazil, 2015.
  12. Ribeiro, M.L., Lourencetti, C., Polese, L., Navickiene, S., Oliveira, L.C. de, Pesticidas: Usos e Riscos Para O Meio Ambiente, HOLOS Environment, vol. 8, No. 1,p. 53, 2008.

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