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Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Development Services

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination…

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination products and other therapies. From designing IND-enabling studies to delivering full CMC analytical and QC support, we join your R&D team as a true partner. EAG scientists take time to understand both your commercial goals and the unique characteristics of your compound. We provide expert guidance to balance regulatory expectations with expediency and cost, and approach technical challenges with flexibility and resolve.

Materials Testing & Analysis

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity…

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity of analytical techniques of technical ingenuity of EAG. From polymers to composites, thin films to superalloys—we know how to leverage materials sciences to gain a competitive edge. At EAG, we don’t just perform testing, we drive commercial success—through thoughtfully designed investigations, technically superior analyses and expert interpretation of data.

Environmental Testing & Regulatory Compliance

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of…

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of active ingredients and formulations—from pesticides and pharmaceuticals to industrial chemicals and consumer products. Whether you are exploring “what if” scenarios, registering a new active ingredient or formulation, responding to a data call-in or seeking to understand the latest guidance, turn to EAG for technical excellence, sound advice, GLP-compliant study execution and expert interpretation.

Microelectronics Test & Engineering

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human…

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human life. In the world of technology, innovation and continuous improvement are imperatives—and being able to quickly and reliably test, debug, diagnose failures and take corrective action can make the difference between a doomed product launch and building a successful global brand. EAG offers you the world’s largest and most diverse collection of specialized analytical instrumentation, capacity to perform a variety of microelectronic tests in parallel, and the multi-disciplinary expertise required to draw true insight from data.

Custom Synthesis & Radiolabeling

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical…

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical and related industries than we do. From 14C and 3H radiolabeled clinical trial materials synthesized under cGMP, to stable-labeled active ingredients for metabolism and environmental fate/effects testing, turn to EAG. We have extensive experience with multi-step and other complex synthesis projects, and our comprehensive, in-house analytical services ensure quick turnaround of purity and structural confirmation.

Crop Biotechnology & Development

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years' experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address…

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years’ experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address the growing needs of the biotechnology crop industry. We offer a wide range of techniques required to fully characterize the event insertion and expressed proteins, as well as the various studies required to confirm the food, feed and environmental safety of products that represent the trait. From early-stage protein confirmation to GLP-compliant EDSP and allergenicity testing, we help you make faster, more informed development decisions and comply with evolving global regulations of genetically engineered crops.

Litigation Support & Expert Testimony

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes,…

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes, turn to EAG. We’ve provided technical consulting, analysis and expert testimony for hundreds of cases involving the aerospace, transportation, medical device, electronics, industrial and consumer product industries. Our team of experts understands the legal process and your need for responsiveness, effective communication, scientifically defensible opinion and confidentiality. From professional consulting to data review to trial preparation and expert witness testimony, ask EAG.

Techniques

Chromatography

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer…

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer look at the purity of your pharmaceutical or need to better understand an agrochemical’s components, EAG has the expertise to separate and evaluate any compound.

Mass Spectrometry

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and…

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and molecules in almost any pure or complex material to detect and obtain mass spectra of the components. We rely on decades of experience in mass spectrometry to provide our clients with precise analyses and the best detection limits.

Imaging

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images…

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images for various industries, from consumer electronics to nanotechnology. Using state-of-the-art equipment and innovative techniques, we conduct expert imaging to aid in failure analysis, dimensional analysis, process characterization, particle identification and more. If you want to investigate a material with angstrom scale resolution, you can count on EAG to get the job done quickly and precisely.

Spectroscopy

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and…

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and methodology with cutting-edge technology to analyze your organic, inorganic, metallic and composite materials for identification, compositional, structural and contaminant information. Whether you need expert spectroscopic analysis to improve your production process or to surmount a technical challenge, EAG is up to the task.

Physical/Chemical Characterization

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be…

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be done right, you can count on EAG. We offer a range of adaptable techniques and innovative methods to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of any compound. Our highly precise testing and analytical services will improve your production process, expedite R&D and help you conquer any technical challenge.

About

A Global Scientific Services Company

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and…

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and business. The scientists and engineers of EAG apply multi-disciplinary expertise, advanced analytical techniques and “we know how” resolve to answer complex questions that drive commerce around the world.

Our Customers

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and…

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and highly regulated industries. We help our customers innovate new and improved products, investigate manufacturing problems, perform advanced analyses to determine safety, efficacy and regulatory compliance, and protect their brands.

Our Company Culture

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win…

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win together.” Across all of our 20+ locations, you will find a true passion for science and the power of science to improve the world we live in. Hear what some of our ~1200 scientists, engineers and support personnel say about what it means to be part of EAG Laboratories.

Careers

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you.…

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you. Browse current openings now, and re-visit our careers page often.

How do you drive R&D productivity and keep up with regulations?

Sectioned PVC Pipe and Bent Stainless Steel Screen Substrates: A 96-Hour Static Acute Survivability Trial with the Freshwater Amphipod (Gammarus Pseudolimnaeus)

APPLICATION NOTE

Joshua Rogers, Biologist, EAG Laboratories, Easton, Md., USA

INTRODUCTION

The freshwater amphipod, Gammarus Pseudolimnaeus, is frequently used to conduct acute toxicity tests. The survival of gammarids in control groups (>90%) is essential to complete an acceptable test under the OSCPP guidelines.1 A preliminary review of historical range-finding and definitive control data (n=22) shows that 36% of tests had unacceptable control survival at test termination, and that repeat testing was frequently required.

Test chambers containing organisms traditionally have been 2L glass beakers filled with ~500-1500 mL of solution. However, considerable evidence shows that aquatic amphipods thrive in and around substrates in their environment, both in brackish2 and freshwater3, and specifically prefer substrates that afford some type of protection.2

The EPA Ecological Effects Test Guidelines OCSPP 850.1020 recommends for flowthrough studies, “a substrate, such as a bent piece of stainless steel screen, should be placed on the bottom of each test vessel to provide cover for the gammarids.”1 In addition, the introduction of sectioned PVC pipe substrates to test chambers in a limited number of acute toxicity tests appeared to improve control gammarid survival.

The objective of this trial was to determine the survival of the G. pseudolimnaeus during a 96-hour period under static test conditions with the presence of sectioned PVC pipe or bent stainless steel screen substrates.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

The study was performed based upon procedures in the U.S. EPA Series 850-Ecological Effects Test Guidelines, OCSPP# 850.1020: Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test.1

Gammarids were introduced to a negative control (dilution water without a substrate), and test chambers that contain either sectioned PVC pipe substrates (PVC) or bent stainless steel screen substrates (SSS) for 96 hours under static conditions. Eight replicate test chambers were maintained in each group, with five gammarids in each chamber so that a total of 40 gammarids were exposed in each substrate and control group.

Figure 1. Side view, front view, and top-down view of the bent stainless steel screen “tent” (left) and the sectioned PVC pipe substrates (right).

Figure 2. Stainless steel screen and sectioned PVC pipe substrates soaking in dilution water. Substrates soaked for >24 hours prior to use in trial.

Figure 3. One replicate test chamber from the sectioned PVC pipe substrate group (pink), the stainless steel screen substrate group (teal), and the negative control group (gray). All test chambers were indiscriminately placed.

MATERIALS

Test Substrates:

  • PVC pipe 1¼” in diameter, cut into ~1¼” long segments, and cut in half lengthwise to create tiles. (Figure 1)
  • T-316 Stainless Steel 30 x 30 mesh screen, cut into 1¼” x 1¾” rectangles and bent once down the middle to create a 1¼” wide “tent.” (Figure 1)

Substrates were washed, soaked, and rinsed with dilution water prior to test initiation to prevent possible leaching from substrates Into test chambers (Figure 2).

  • Organism: Field-collected, mixed-age freshwater amphipod.
  • Dilution Water: U.V. Sterilized Well Water
  • Test Apparatus: 2 L glass beakers, filled with ~500 mL of dilution water. Three units of the selected substrate in each chamber. (Figure 3)

Figure 4. Top-down images of transfer containers for replicates A-D of the negative control group. Three images were taken of each transfer container prior to initiation.

Figure 5. Mean percent survival of the negative control (NC), sectioned PVC pipe substrate (PVC), and bent stainless steel screen substrate (SSS) groups at test termination. Asterisk denotes significant difference from other groups.

Initiation Procedure

  • To achieve uniformity in organism size the gammarids were visually assessed and atypically large and small gammarids were removed from culture containers and not used for initiation.
  • Gammarids were indiscriminately placed into transfer chambers 1-2 at a time until each contained 5 organisms.
  • Each transfer chamber was photographed from above (Figure 4) in order to determine initial gammarid size (photographs to be analyzed).
  • Gammarids were then introduced using a wide-bore pipette to test chambers already containing substrates as to avoid injuring organisms.

RESULTS

  • The mean percent survival of the gammarids in the SSS Substrate group (90.0%) was significantly less than the mean percent survival of the gammarids in both the PVC Substrate group (97.5%) and NC group (100%) 4,5 (Figure 5.)
  • The cumulative percent survival of the PVC Substrate group was not significantly different than that of the NC group 4,5 (Figure 5.)
  • All study groups met criteria for an acceptable test.1
  • Results of this trial suggest that the addition of substrates to test chambers does not improve gammarid survival.
  • Results of this trial suggest other factors may attribute to low survival:
    • Uniformity of organism size (photos to be analyzed)
    • Seasonal Effects (time of field collection)
    • Unknown age of organisms

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Thank you to Jess, Jeremy, Tim, and Sean for meeting with me and supporting this trial! Thank you, Jeff, for crafting the PVC tiles that have helped the Acute team run some good studies! And thank you Amanda, Tui, and Sue for helping me understand and run the statistics!

REFERENCES

  1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. Series 850 – Ecological Effects Test Guidelines, OCSPP Number 850.1020: Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test.
  2. Aikins, S. and Kikuchi, E. 2001. “Studies on habitat selection by amphipods using artificial substrates within an estuarine environment”. Hydrobiologia. 457:77-86.
  3. Waters, T.F. 1984. “Annual production by Gammarus pseudolimnaeus among substrate types in Valley Creek, Minnesota”. The American Midland Naturalist. 112(1):95-102.
  4. The SAS System for Windows. 2002 – 2012. Version 9.4. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina. 5.
  5. Jonckheere, A. R. 1954. A Distribution-Free K-Sample Test Against Ordered Alternatives, Biometrika 41 (1/2): 133 – 145.