Industries
Services

Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Development Services

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination…

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination products and other therapies. From designing IND-enabling studies to delivering full CMC analytical and QC support, we join your R&D team as a true partner. EAG scientists take time to understand both your commercial goals and the unique characteristics of your compound. We provide expert guidance to balance regulatory expectations with expediency and cost, and approach technical challenges with flexibility and resolve.

Materials Testing & Analysis

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity…

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity of analytical techniques of technical ingenuity of EAG. From polymers to composites, thin films to superalloys—we know how to leverage materials sciences to gain a competitive edge. At EAG, we don’t just perform testing, we drive commercial success—through thoughtfully designed investigations, technically superior analyses and expert interpretation of data.

Environmental Testing & Regulatory Compliance

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of…

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of active ingredients and formulations—from pesticides and pharmaceuticals to industrial chemicals and consumer products. Whether you are exploring “what if” scenarios, registering a new active ingredient or formulation, responding to a data call-in or seeking to understand the latest guidance, turn to EAG for technical excellence, sound advice, GLP-compliant study execution and expert interpretation.

Microelectronics Test & Engineering

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human…

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human life. In the world of technology, innovation and continuous improvement are imperatives—and being able to quickly and reliably test, debug, diagnose failures and take corrective action can make the difference between a doomed product launch and building a successful global brand. EAG offers you the world’s largest and most diverse collection of specialized analytical instrumentation, capacity to perform a variety of microelectronic tests in parallel, and the multi-disciplinary expertise required to draw true insight from data.

Custom Synthesis & Radiolabeling

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical…

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical and related industries than we do. From 14C and 3H radiolabeled clinical trial materials synthesized under cGMP, to stable-labeled active ingredients for metabolism and environmental fate/effects testing, turn to EAG. We have extensive experience with multi-step and other complex synthesis projects, and our comprehensive, in-house analytical services ensure quick turnaround of purity and structural confirmation.

Crop Biotechnology & Development

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years' experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address…

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years’ experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address the growing needs of the biotechnology crop industry. We offer a wide range of techniques required to fully characterize the event insertion and expressed proteins, as well as the various studies required to confirm the food, feed and environmental safety of products that represent the trait. From early-stage protein confirmation to GLP-compliant EDSP and allergenicity testing, we help you make faster, more informed development decisions and comply with evolving global regulations of genetically engineered crops.

Litigation Support & Expert Testimony

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes,…

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes, turn to EAG. We’ve provided technical consulting, analysis and expert testimony for hundreds of cases involving the aerospace, transportation, medical device, electronics, industrial and consumer product industries. Our team of experts understands the legal process and your need for responsiveness, effective communication, scientifically defensible opinion and confidentiality. From professional consulting to data review to trial preparation and expert witness testimony, ask EAG.

Techniques

Chromatography

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer…

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer look at the purity of your pharmaceutical or need to better understand an agrochemical’s components, EAG has the expertise to separate and evaluate any compound.

Mass Spectrometry

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and…

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and molecules in almost any pure or complex material to detect and obtain mass spectra of the components. We rely on decades of experience in mass spectrometry to provide our clients with precise analyses and the best detection limits.

Imaging

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images…

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images for various industries, from consumer electronics to nanotechnology. Using state-of-the-art equipment and innovative techniques, we conduct expert imaging to aid in failure analysis, dimensional analysis, process characterization, particle identification and more. If you want to investigate a material with angstrom scale resolution, you can count on EAG to get the job done quickly and precisely.

Spectroscopy

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and…

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and methodology with cutting-edge technology to analyze your organic, inorganic, metallic and composite materials for identification, compositional, structural and contaminant information. Whether you need expert spectroscopic analysis to improve your production process or to surmount a technical challenge, EAG is up to the task.

Physical/Chemical Characterization

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be…

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be done right, you can count on EAG. We offer a range of adaptable techniques and innovative methods to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of any compound. Our highly precise testing and analytical services will improve your production process, expedite R&D and help you conquer any technical challenge.

About

A Global Scientific Services Company

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and…

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and business. The scientists and engineers of EAG apply multi-disciplinary expertise, advanced analytical techniques and “we know how” resolve to answer complex questions that drive commerce around the world.

Our Customers

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and…

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and highly regulated industries. We help our customers innovate new and improved products, investigate manufacturing problems, perform advanced analyses to determine safety, efficacy and regulatory compliance, and protect their brands.

Our Company Culture

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win…

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win together.” Across all of our 20+ locations, you will find a true passion for science and the power of science to improve the world we live in. Hear what some of our ~1200 scientists, engineers and support personnel say about what it means to be part of EAG Laboratories.

Careers

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you.…

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you. Browse current openings now, and re-visit our careers page often.

How do you make continuous improvement profitable?

SIMS Measurements of Silicon Carbide

APPLICATION NOTE

INTRODUCTION

Silicon Carbide is a very important material for high-power, high-temperature, high-frequency and high-radiation devices due to its superior electronic and thermal properties. Dramatic progress in SiC-based power transistors, LEDs, and sensors have made it imperative to accurately control dopant and impurity levels.

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) has very high detection sensitivity for a variety of elements. Its unique profiling capability can provide quick and precise feedback in dopant level, junction depth, and impurity distribution in SiC sample, including patterned device structures. It is an essential tool for process control and problem solving in wafer growth and device manufacturing.

BASICS OF SIMS ANALYSIS OF SiC

Primary Beam

Either oxygen (O2+) or cesium (Cs+) primary ion beams are used for SIMS analysis. The spot size of a focused primary ion beam is typically 2 to 20 μm. This primary beam is rastered over a square area, usually on the scale of up to several hundred microns on a side.

Detection of Secondary Ions

Secondary ions generated from the central portion of the rastered area are measured after being mass separated in a mass spectrometer. In magnetic sector SIMS instruments secondary ions can be detected using electron multipliers, Faraday cups or ion imaging detectors.

Silicon Carbide SIMS Measurements

QUANTIFICATION OF SiC

Concentration Calibration

Concentrations are calibrated based on ion implant standards into clean SiC.

Depth Calibration

The acquisition time of a depth profile is converted to depth using the measured analytical crater depth (using a stylus profilometer).

SIMS DETECTION LIMITS (at/cm3) IN DEPTH PROFILING MODE*

Silicon Carbide SIMS Measurements, SIMS Detection Limits

*Detection limits in semi-bulk or bulk mode may be significantly lower than those obtained in depth profiling mode.

IMPROVEMENT OF SIMS DETECTION LIMITS IN SiC

Improvement of detection limits of N

Improved vacuum and a modified Cs+ source that provides high beam current density, has led to improved detection limits for N.

Improvement of detection limits for B, Al, and other metal elements

The instrument used is limited to the measurement of Si, C, and SiC material to reduce potential contamination from other materials. A larger Field Aperture and a non-standard Contrast Diaphragm are used to increase the detection area and collection angle, thus increasing our sensitivity for these elements.

Detection limits under profiling condition in SiC

N: 2-5E15 atoms/cm3

B: 2E13 atoms/cm3

Al: 2E13 atoms/cm3

Silicon Carbide SIMS Measurements, Detection limits under profiling condition in SiC

TYPICAL SiC ANALYSES

  • Depth profiling of dopants and impurities, including in small devices
  • Semi-bulk mode analysis of metallic impurities
  • SurfaceSIMS for surface contamination measurement on SiC surfaces
  • SIMS analysis with sample polishing to access deeper or buried layers (frontside or backside)
  • Extremely low concentration nitrogen analysis
  • SiO2/SiC interface analysis

Silicon Carbide SIMS Measurements, Semi-bulk mode analysis of metal impurities

Silicon Carbide SIMS Measurements, SIMS analysis of back-polished Sample Ni on SIC

RASTER CHANGE TECHNIQUE FOR LOW N CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENT

The “raster change” method provides an accurate way to determine and remove the contribution of background nitrogen to the measured signal, because both nitrogen and matrix ion intensities can be analyzed at the same location of the sample by changing the primary ion beam raster size during a profile.

In this technique, the sample is initially sputtered by the primary beam using a large raster. After the profile reaches a constant level, the primary raster size is reduced, while the collection area for secondary ions stays the same. This increases the current density of primary ions within the collection area.

A disadvantage of this technique is that it can be used only on uniformly doped samples or in a thick enough layer that concentration is uniform.

Silicon Carbide SIMS Measurements, Raster Change Technique for Extremely Low Level N Analysis

Raster change during N profile. The N shown is quantified for the 50×50μm raster

SiC 4-INCH WHOLE WAFER ANALYSIS

SIMS profile of Al and N from a 2” SiC wafer. The Al profile was acquired using oxygen beam sputtering, and N profile was acquired using Cs beam sputtering. The whole wafer capability provides doping concentration and thickness of each epi layer without breaking the wafer. A N detection limit of ~2e16 atoms/cc can be achieved after ~2 hours of pumping.

Silicon Carbide SIMS Measurements, Modified Cameca 4f Sample Intro System

Modified Cameca 4f with 4” Sample Intro System

Silicon Carbide SIMS Measurements, SIMS Analysis of Individual SiC Particles for Accurate Bulk Concentration Measurement

SIMS ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SiC PARTICLES FOR ACCURATE BULK CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENT

Using a special sample preparation technique and a new SIMS analytical protocol, individual SiC particles with a size ranging from 100 μm to 500 μm in a SiC powder sample can be analyzed. This innovative approach eliminates contributions from surface contamination to bulk concentration.

Silicon Carbide SIMS Measurements

N profiles for two different SiC particles from the same batch of powder samples. The SIMS results for these two particles show good batch bulk concentration consistency.

N profiles for two different SiC particles from the same batch of powder samples. The SIMS results for these two particles show good batch bulk concentration consistency.