Industries
Services

Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Development Services

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination…

EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination products and other therapies. From designing IND-enabling studies to delivering full CMC analytical and QC support, we join your R&D team as a true partner. EAG scientists take time to understand both your commercial goals and the unique characteristics of your compound. We provide expert guidance to balance regulatory expectations with expediency and cost, and approach technical challenges with flexibility and resolve.

Materials Testing & Analysis

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity…

When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity of analytical techniques or technical ingenuity of EAG. From polymers to composites, thin films to superalloys—we know how to leverage materials sciences to gain a competitive edge. At EAG, we don’t just perform testing, we drive commercial success—through thoughtfully designed investigations, technically superior analyses and expert interpretation of data.

Environmental Testing & Regulatory Compliance

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of…

Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of active ingredients and formulations—from pesticides and pharmaceuticals to industrial chemicals and consumer products. Whether you are exploring “what if” scenarios, registering a new active ingredient or formulation, responding to a data call-in or seeking to understand the latest guidance, turn to EAG for technical excellence, sound advice, GLP-compliant study execution and expert interpretation.

Microelectronics Test & Engineering

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human…

Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human life. In the world of technology, innovation and continuous improvement are imperatives—and being able to quickly and reliably test, debug, diagnose failures and take corrective action can make the difference between a doomed product launch and building a successful global brand. EAG offers you the world’s largest and most diverse collection of specialized analytical instrumentation, capacity to perform a variety of microelectronic tests in parallel, and the multi-disciplinary expertise required to draw true insight from data.

Custom Synthesis & Radiolabeling

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical…

No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical and related industries than we do. From 14C and 3H radiolabeled clinical trial materials synthesized under cGMP, to stable-labeled active ingredients for metabolism and environmental fate/effects testing, turn to EAG. We have extensive experience with multi-step and other complex synthesis projects, and our comprehensive, in-house analytical services ensure quick turnaround of purity and structural confirmation.

Crop Biotechnology & Development

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years' experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address…

EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years’ experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address the growing needs of the biotechnology crop industry. We offer a wide range of techniques required to fully characterize the event insertion and expressed proteins, as well as the various studies required to confirm the food, feed and environmental safety of products that represent the trait. From early-stage protein confirmation to GLP-compliant EDSP and allergenicity testing, we help you make faster, more informed development decisions and comply with evolving global regulations of genetically engineered crops.

Litigation Support & Expert Testimony

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes,…

When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes, turn to EAG. We’ve provided technical consulting, analysis and expert testimony for hundreds of cases involving the aerospace, transportation, medical device, electronics, industrial and consumer product industries. Our team of experts understands the legal process and your need for responsiveness, effective communication, scientifically defensible opinion and confidentiality. From professional consulting to data review to trial preparation and expert witness testimony, ask EAG.

Techniques

Chromatography

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer…

Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer look at the purity of your pharmaceutical or need to better understand an agrochemical’s components, EAG has the expertise to separate and evaluate any compound.

Mass Spectrometry

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and…

Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and molecules in almost any pure or complex material to detect and obtain mass spectra of the components. We rely on decades of experience in mass spectrometry to provide our clients with precise analyses and the best detection limits.

Imaging

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images…

EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images for various industries, from consumer electronics to nanotechnology. Using state-of-the-art equipment and innovative techniques, we conduct expert imaging to aid in failure analysis, dimensional analysis, process characterization, particle identification and more. If you want to investigate a material with angstrom scale resolution, you can count on EAG to get the job done quickly and precisely.

Spectroscopy

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and…

EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and methodology with cutting-edge technology to analyze your organic, inorganic, metallic and composite materials for identification, compositional, structural and contaminant information. Whether you need expert spectroscopic analysis to improve your production process or to surmount a technical challenge, EAG is up to the task.

Physical/Chemical Characterization

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be…

Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be done right, you can count on EAG. We offer a range of adaptable techniques and innovative methods to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of any compound. Our highly precise testing and analytical services will improve your production process, expedite R&D and help you conquer any technical challenge.

About

A Global Scientific Services Company

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and…

One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and business. The scientists and engineers of EAG apply multi-disciplinary expertise, advanced analytical techniques and “we know how” resolve to answer complex questions that drive commerce around the world.

Our Customers

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and…

Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and highly regulated industries. We help our customers innovate new and improved products, investigate manufacturing problems, perform advanced analyses to determine safety, efficacy and regulatory compliance, and protect their brands.

Our Company Culture

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win…

EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win together.” Across all of our 20+ locations, you will find a true passion for science and the power of science to improve the world we live in. Hear what some of our ~1200 scientists, engineers and support personnel say about what it means to be part of EAG Laboratories.

Careers

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you.…

EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you. Browse current openings now, and re-visit our careers page often.

How do you extend life without unwanted side effects?

AFM: Polymer Surface Modification

APPLICATION NOTE

BACKGROUND

Polymers are being used in an increasingly wider range of applications, particularly in the medical device industry. It is vital to understand polymer surface characteristics because many critical interactions between the polymer and its environment occur at the surface. For instance, the surface of a polymer used in a medical device is often the interface between the body and the device. By controlling the surface properties of the polymer, the medical device designer can enhance or inhibit various reactions of the body to the device. The interaction between the polymer and its environment depends in large part on surface composition and structure. Treatments such as spraying, vacuum deposition, and chemical or plasma etching have been developed to produce other desired surface characteristics and topographies.

Since surface composition and topography play such a large role in the performance of the polymer, precise surface characterization can be an important part in the rapid deployment of new materials or understanding of problems and behavior in existing materials. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), with its high-resolution surface mapping capabilities, can be a key component of that characterization.

SURFACE EFFECTS OF STRAIN AND PLASMA ETCHING

The images presented here demonstrate the effect of strain and oxygen plasma etching on an ethylene vinyl acetate film used in medical device packaging. The first image, Figure 1, shows a 4μm phase image of the as-received surface. To create a phase image the cantilever is oscillated near its resonance frequency and the phase lag between the cantilever and its driving force is plotted as a function of lateral cantilever position over the sample. The phase lag can be sensitive to physical property differences in the sample surface, as well as topography. The AFM phase image provides a detailed view of the polymer surface. The well-defined features in the phase image are probably the result of polymer lamellae that appear at the surface in slightly different orientations.

Atomic Force Micrscopy (AFM), polymer surface data, as-received
Figure 1 As-received surface

The second image, Figure 2, is a 5μm phase image of a different area of the same sample after the sample had been strained to the breaking point and the stress then released.

Atomic Force Micrscopy (AFM), polymer surface, strained
Figure 2 Strained

The strain direction runs from top to bottom in the image. Obviously, the surface has been modified by the applied stress. Combining this morphological information with detailed chemical analysis by techniques such as XPS or TOF-SIMS provides valuable information about the behavior of this sample. Since neither of these images required any type of sample preparation, the results are not affected by artifacts that may be created during a preparation process.

SAMPLE HISTORY

The history of a polymer surface sample can have an important effect on its behavior and performance. After the images shown in Figures 1 and 2 were acquired, the samples were etched in oxygen plasma for three different time intervals: 15 seconds, 1 minute and 3 minutes. Figures 3 and 4 show the effect of 3 minutes of plasma etching. It is obvious that the strained surface structure was affected to a much larger degree than the unstrained surface.

Atomic Force Micrscopy (AFM) of a polymer surface modification not strained, etched 3 minutes
Figure 3 Not strained, etched 3 minutes

Atomic Force Micrscopy (AFM) of a surface polymer, strained then etched 3 minutes.
Figure 4 Strained, then etched 3 minutes

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS: SURFACE ROUGHNESS & PSD PLOTS

While being able to visualize the surface of a polymer is useful in itself, the ability to actually quantify physical characteristics can be important in some cases. Polymer surface roughness is an obvious parameter to measure from AFM data. However, while the roughness value of a sample surface can be useful, it can also be misleading. Two surfaces can have the same root mean square (RMS) roughness, but very different topographies. A power spectral density (PSD) plot of a surface can be a more effective tool in understanding and characterizing surface texture. The PSD is essentially the Fourier transform of a surface profile and shows the distribution of feature sizes on a surface. The power spectral density (PSD) plot of a surface can clearly reveal any periodic structures in that surface. The RMS roughness value is calculated by taking the square root of the integral of the PSD over some frequency interval of interest. Figure 5 is a PSD plot that clearly shows how the strained-and-etched surface was affected by increasing the etch time. The PSD was calculated only in the y-direction to highlight the directionality of the surface structure. As expected from the images, the peak shifts to longer wavelengths with increasing etch time, indicating that the surface features are increasing in size. The increase in surface roughness with etch time is demonstrated by the increasing vertical position of the curves with etch time.

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data of PSD plot
Figure 5 Not strained, etched 1 minute