Electrothermal vaporization (ETV) coupled with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a powerful technique for rapid, direct determination of trace and ultra-trace levels of analytes in broad range of samples directly with no or minimal sample preparation. This solid sampling technique offers exceptionally high sensitivity and enables rapid chemical analyses. Sensitivity improvements result from high analyte transport efficiencies (25-80%), when compared to a nebulizer-based sample introduction system.
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