SIMS: Do You Remember When a Factor of 2 Was Good Enough?


Well, do you remember when a factor of 2 was good enough? Probably, not unless you have been around secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) since the early 1960s, like one of us has been. This paper will give many references back to the early days of quantification when a local thermal equilibrium model was used to obtain the first results that were accurate to within a factor of 2, but only 60% of the time. It only worked for bulk silicate matrixes. People were not even using SIMS on semiconductors in those days. Several early references showing profiles of ion implants in Si will be referenced, but it was not until 1980 that the first paper was published that explicitly showed how to use ion implants as SIMS standards. People were using ion implants as standards before 1980, but only in limited cases, and with no formal published equations specifying how to use them. But, the samples for which ion implants were used as standards were for dilute concentrations in a single matrix, which had a uniform matrix composition with depth. The rest of the paper will show how we at Eurofins EAG Laboratories tackled the problem of quantification of both major and minor elements in nonuniform, multi-element matrices with continuously graded composition changes using point-by-point CORrected-SIMS. These include SiGe heterostructure bipolar transistors, AlGaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, and B plasma-implanted poly-silicon gates.
Published under an exclusive license by the AVS.

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