Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Development Services
EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination…
EAG brings unparalleled expertise to the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs, biopharmaceuticals, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), drug-device combination products and other therapies. From designing IND-enabling studies to delivering full CMC analytical and QC support, we join your R&D team as a true partner. EAG scientists take time to understand both your commercial goals and the unique characteristics of your compound. We provide expert guidance to balance regulatory expectations with expediency and cost, and approach technical challenges with flexibility and resolve.
When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity…
When it comes to understanding the physical structure, chemical properties and composition of materials, no scientific services company offers the breadth of experience, diversity of analytical techniques of technical ingenuity of EAG. From polymers to composites, thin films to superalloys—we know how to leverage materials sciences to gain a competitive edge. At EAG, we don’t just perform testing, we drive commercial success—through thoughtfully designed investigations, technically superior analyses and expert interpretation of data.
Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of…
Having helped develop the test methods that shape current regulatory guidelines, EAG chemists, biologists and toxicologists have evaluated the environmental impact of thousands of active ingredients and formulations—from pesticides and pharmaceuticals to industrial chemicals and consumer products. Whether you are exploring “what if” scenarios, registering a new active ingredient or formulation, responding to a data call-in or seeking to understand the latest guidance, turn to EAG for technical excellence, sound advice, GLP-compliant study execution and expert interpretation.
Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human…
Whether connecting the internet of things, guiding surgical lasers or powering the latest smart phone, integrated circuits and microelectronics touch nearly every aspect of human life. In the world of technology, innovation and continuous improvement are imperatives—and being able to quickly and reliably test, debug, diagnose failures and take corrective action can make the difference between a doomed product launch and building a successful global brand. EAG offers you the world’s largest and most diverse collection of specialized analytical instrumentation, capacity to perform a variety of microelectronic tests in parallel, and the multi-disciplinary expertise required to draw true insight from data.
No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical…
No contract service provider has more experience performing custom synthesis and producing isotopically labeled compounds to support product development in life science, chemical and related industries than we do. From 14C and 3H radiolabeled clinical trial materials synthesized under cGMP, to stable-labeled active ingredients for metabolism and environmental fate/effects testing, turn to EAG. We have extensive experience with multi-step and other complex synthesis projects, and our comprehensive, in-house analytical services ensure quick turnaround of purity and structural confirmation.
EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years' experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address…
EAG combines biotechnology and protein characterization expertise with more than 50 years’ experience analyzing chemical compounds in plant and environmental matrices to address the growing needs of the biotechnology crop industry. We offer a wide range of techniques required to fully characterize the event insertion and expressed proteins, as well as the various studies required to confirm the food, feed and environmental safety of products that represent the trait. From early-stage protein confirmation to GLP-compliant EDSP and allergenicity testing, we help you make faster, more informed development decisions and comply with evolving global regulations of genetically engineered crops.
When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes,…
When you need solid science and investigative engineering to address product failures, inform legal strategy, protect intellectual property or address product liability disputes, turn to EAG. We’ve provided technical consulting, analysis and expert testimony for hundreds of cases involving the aerospace, transportation, medical device, electronics, industrial and consumer product industries. Our team of experts understands the legal process and your need for responsiveness, effective communication, scientifically defensible opinion and confidentiality. From professional consulting to data review to trial preparation and expert witness testimony, ask EAG.
Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer…
Using an array of advanced separation techniques and innovative technology, we conduct highly precise analytical chromatography for various industries. Whether you want a closer look at the purity of your pharmaceutical or need to better understand an agrochemical’s components, EAG has the expertise to separate and evaluate any compound.
Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and…
Need to evaluate the molecular structure of a compound or identify its origins? EAG knows how. With state-of-the-art tools, we can separate, vaporize and ionize the atoms and molecules in almost any pure or complex material to detect and obtain mass spectra of the components. We rely on decades of experience in mass spectrometry to provide our clients with precise analyses and the best detection limits.
EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images…
EAG is a world leader in high-resolution imaging down to the atomic level. We offer unmatched analytical know-how, generating extremely detailed surface and near surface images for various industries, from consumer electronics to nanotechnology. Using state-of-the-art equipment and innovative techniques, we conduct expert imaging to aid in failure analysis, dimensional analysis, process characterization, particle identification and more. If you want to investigate a material with angstrom scale resolution, you can count on EAG to get the job done quickly and precisely.
EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and…
EAG offers a vast array of spectroscopic techniques to clients in various industries, from defense contractors to technology pioneers. We combine unparalleled expertise and methodology with cutting-edge technology to analyze your organic, inorganic, metallic and composite materials for identification, compositional, structural and contaminant information. Whether you need expert spectroscopic analysis to improve your production process or to surmount a technical challenge, EAG is up to the task.
Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be…
Need to identify your unique material? Want to analyze the thermal properties of a sample, or measure the success of a process step? If it has to be done quickly and it has to be done right, you can count on EAG. We offer a range of adaptable techniques and innovative methods to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of any compound. Our highly precise testing and analytical services will improve your production process, expedite R&D and help you conquer any technical challenge.
One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and…
One of the most respected names in contract research and testing, EAG Laboratories is a global scientific services company operating at the intersection of science, technology and business. The scientists and engineers of EAG apply multi-disciplinary expertise, advanced analytical techniques and “we know how” resolve to answer complex questions that drive commerce around the world.
Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and…
Science and technology transcend industry boundaries, and so does demand for EAG’s expertise. We partner with companies across a broad spectrum of high-tech, high-impact and highly regulated industries. We help our customers innovate new and improved products, investigate manufacturing problems, perform advanced analyses to determine safety, efficacy and regulatory compliance, and protect their brands.
EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win…
EAG’s corporate culture is firmly rooted in four guiding principles: “foster a growth mindset,” “find a better way,” “earn more loyal customers,” and “win together.” Across all of our 20+ locations, you will find a true passion for science and the power of science to improve the world we live in. Hear what some of our ~1200 scientists, engineers and support personnel say about what it means to be part of EAG Laboratories.
EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you.…
EAG is growing, and we are always looking for talented, problem-solving oriented individuals to join our company. If you have a “we know how” spirit, we want to hear from you. Browse current openings now, and re-visit our careers page often.
The scientists at EAG are experts in using thermal analysis techniques for materials characterization as well as for designing custom studies. This application note details TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), TG-EGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis with Evolved Gas Analysis), DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TMA (Thermomechanical Analysis) and DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analysis). These techniques have played key roles in detailed materials identifications, failure analysis and deformulation (reverse engineering) investigations.
THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS (TGA)
TGA measures changes in sample weight in a controlled thermal environment as a function of temperature or time. The changes in sample weight (mass) can be a result of alterations in chemical or physical properties.
TGA is useful for investigating the thermal stability of solids and liquids. A sensitive microbalance measures the change in mass of the sample as it is heated or held isothermally in a furnace. The purge gas surrounding the sample can be either chemically inert or reactive. TGA instruments can be programmed to switch gases during the test to provide a wide range of information in a single experiment.
Thermal stability/degradation studies
Investigating mass losses resulting from physical and chemical changes
Quantitation of volatiles/moisture
V aporization, sublimation
Loss on drying
Small sample size
Analysis of solids and liquids with minimal sample preparation
Quantitative analysis of multiple mass loss thermal events from physical and chemical changes of materials
Separation and analysis of multiple overlapping mass loss events
Evolved products are identified only when the TGA is connected to an evolved gas analyzer (e.g. TGA/MS or TGA/FTIR)
THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS WITH EVOLVED GAS ANALYSIS (TG-EGA)
Evolved Gas Analysis Outgassing and decomposition of a material is analyzed by TGA-IR. The insert is the TGA profile. The FTIR spectra of evolved gas species from 400°C – 600°C were collected. Intense evolution of CO, H2O, CO2 and C6H5OH can be seen above 580°C.
TG-EGA instrumentation is used to study the physical and chemical processes that result in mass loss or gain. Like standard TGA, the sample is heated in a controlled gas atmosphere using a programmed temperature sweep or isothermal hold. But TG-EGA goes one step further: a gas analyzer is coupled to the TGA furnace using a heated transfer line, which enables analysis of the gases evolved by the sample during heating and pyrolysis. The evolved gas analyzer is used to identify the chemistries present in the off-gassing and pyrolyzed components.
Evolved Gas Analyzer options for TG-EGA include:
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) – identification of chemical family, and, in some cases, specific compound
Mass Analyzer – chemical residuals are specifically assigned, but sometimes have other possible answers
Thermal stability (degradation) studies
Monitoring mass changes under controlled gas atmosphere and temperature with identification of off-gassing and pyrolysis products
Analyzing trace volatiles, dehydration, additives, chemical reactions, formulation components, mechanism of decomposition
Analysis of polymers, organic and inorganic materials
Simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and characterization of evolved chemical residuals
Small sample size
Analysis of solids and liquids with minimal sample preparation
Detection of multiple mass loss thermal events from physical and chemical changes of materials
TGA-FTIR does not detect non-polar molecules, such as H2, N2, O2
TGA-FTIR spectral identification of product gases may be limited to chemical family or class
Secondary gas-phase reactions can complicate identification of product gases
DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY (DSC)
DSC performs quantitative calorimetric measurements on solid, liquid or semisolid samples. Heat flux DSC measures the difference in temperature (T) between the sample and an inert reference and calculates the quantity of heat flow (q) into or out of the sample using the equation q = DT/R, where R is the thermal resistance of the transducer (DSC cell).
DSC Q SeriesTM models (TA Instruments, Inc.) measure absolute heat flow by application of cell resistance and capacitance calibrations. This feature enables the direct measurement of specific heat capacity of a material using a single experiment. The Q SeriesTM feature a special operating mode called temperature modulated DSC (MDSC). MDSC applies a sinusoidal temperature modulation superimposed over a linear heating rate. MDSC is a powerful technique which makes it possible to measure weak transitions, separate overlapping thermal events and provide highly accurate heat capacity measurements.
Analyze phase transitions and reactions: melting point, crystallization, glass transition, cure temperature, delta H
Measure the heat capacity of pure compounds and mixtures
Compare quality (QC, failure analysis, new material evaluation)
Identify unknown materials
Evaluate formulations, blends and effects of additives
Determine the effects of aging and evaluate thermal history
Estimate percent crystallinity
Determine percent purity of relatively pure organics
Study cure or crystallization kinetics and effect of impurities on crystallization
Determine phase separation of polymer blends and copolymers
Estimate degree of cure; measure residual cure
Evaluate eutectic point
Characterize polymorphic materials
Resolve subtle, weak or overlapping phase transitions
Small sample size
Highly accurate measurement of phase transitions and heat capacities
Very precise temperature control (isothermal holds and heating/cooling ramps)
Sensitive measurement of subtle or weak phase transitions
Ability to separate overlapping thermal transitions
Works best for samples having a surface that spreads relatively flat against the bottom of the “crucible” or pan.
Accurate data cannot be obtained when decomposition occurs within the same temperature region as the phase transition (e.g. melting)
Mass of sample has to remain constant in the pan for accurate measurement; that means no loss of sample to evaporation or sublimation during the test
THERMOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS (TMA)
TMA is used to study physical properties of viscoelastic materials under mechanical loading as a function of temperature and time. Measurements are performed in either compression or tension mode by a probe that applies force to the sample.
Typical viscoelastic materials exhibit volume changes with ramping temperature. As the sample changes dimension, the probe travels up or down, and the distance of travel is precisely measured by a transducer coupled to the probe. The measured change in sample length correlates with such properties as shrinkage, expansion, swelling and softening.
TMA techniques involve selection of the correct probe and conditions to measure the properties of interest. Typical probe configurations include:
Compression-type force: Probe is placed on top the sample, which is mounted on a platform. Used to monitor expansion, shrinkage or softening based on selection of contact area (probe tip geometry) and force.
Tension-type force: Film or fiber sample is clamped between a stationary platform and the probe. Used to measure expansion, shrinkage and softening.
Determine softening point (Tg) of polymers
Measure coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of polymers, composites, ceramics, inorganics and metals
Characterize CTE differences of polymer in glassy state (below Tg) and in rubbery state (above Tg)
Study effects of physical aging, crosslinking or post-cure on the Tg of thermoplastics or thermosetting polymers
Determine dimensional stability of parts at operating temperature and loading
Characterize shrinkage of oriented films
Evaluate differences in shrinkage and expansion of films or layered composites as a function of loading direction: “machine” and “transverse”, or “in-plane” and “out-of-plane”
Force ramp or step force to evaluate changing load on dimension change
Isostrain: measure the force required to maintain constant strain while material is heated
Small sample size
Low force range
Force alteration: linear and stepwise
Programmable temperature: (1) sequential heating and cooling cycles, (2) isothermal
Requires parallel faces and uniform thickness for expansion
Reasonably flat samples for penetration
DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS (DMA)
Polymers respond to the energy of motion in two ways: (1) elastic response which is important for shape recovery and (2) viscous response which is essential for dispersing mechanical energy and preventing breakage. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is used to study these responses, called viscoelastic properties, under conditions of low applied mechanical force.
Polymer viscoelasticity is dependent on temperature and time. Controlled heating and/or cooling are incorporated in DMA instruments to study temperature effects on polymer stiffness and resiliency. The test speed or time scale used for mechanically deforming the polymer enables study of time (or frequency) effects on resistance to permanent deformation. Knowledge obtained through strategic use of the parameters of force, temperature, time or frequency provides the basis for predicting polymer performance in real world applications.
DMA utilizes a system of clamps for mechanical testing of solid polymeric materials. The polymer test sample must first be trimmed, cut or molded into a shape that will work with the selected clamp type. Clamp selections for polymer samples are based on giving the most suitable type of mechanical motion for the specific study type:
Shear (motion parallel to the sample surface)
All DMA clamp configurations feature a movable clamp and one or more stationary clamps, which are used to mount the sample. The movable part applies force and displaces the sample by stretching, bending, shearing or compressing it. Some clamp types must apply an initial low force to the sample prior to setting the clamp in motion. This keeps the sample taut (tension) or maintains contact between the movable clamp and sample (compression, 3-point bend) throughout a dynamic test.
In dynamic testing, a sinusoidal motion is applied to the sample by the movable clamp. As the cyclic displacement of the material occurs at the specified force, the amplitude of the sine wave response is measured. The stress and strain responses of the material are calculated based on the geometry and dimensions of the sample and the phase angle between the sinusoidal input and response.
The stress and strain values of viscoelastic materials, including polymers, are a function of temperature, time, frequency, and the applied oscillation amplitude. However, for dynamic testing, the best practice is to keep the measurements independent of amplitude. Therefore, DMA method development incorporates an amplitude sweep to select amplitude parameters within the linear viscoelastic range (LVR) of the material. For most materials, the strain amplitudes of less than 1% are recommended to ensure operation within the LVR.
The phase angle measured by DMA is used to derive trigonometric equations for stress and strain. The mathematical derivation of these equations is beyond the scope of this paper. However, the relationship of stress and strain depends on the phase angle, or how much the polymer response lags behind the strain input. The trigonometric relationship of stress to strain incorporating the phase angle gives three quantities that describe how much the sample response is in-phase and out-of-phase with the mechanical input.
E′ = Storage Modulus
E″ = Loss Modulus
E″/E′ = tan δ
When the sample is tested in shear mode, the storage and loss modulus are denoted as G′ and G″, respectively. And tan δ becomes G″/G′.
Storage modulus (E′ or G′) corresponds to the mechanical energy stored by the material during a loading cycle. Consequently, the storage modulus is related to the stiffness and shape recovery of the polymer during loading. The loss modulus (E″ or G″) represents the damping behavior, which indicates the polymer’s ability to disperse mechanical energy through internal molecular motions. By comparison, tan delta is the ratio E″/ E′. The peak maximum in tan delta best represents the glass transition (Tg) where the material exhibits long-range cooperative molecular motion which is consistent with rubbery flow, permanent deformation or both depending on molecular structure.
Study the “viscoelastic spectrum”, which shows temperature (and time) dependent modulus changes from hard/rigid to soft/rubbery
Determine glass transition (Tg) of polymers
Study changes in elastic (storage) modulus as a function of frequency
Characterize “damping”: dissipation of mechanical energy through internal motion (loss modulus, tan delta)
Comparative and failure analysis of polymers
Study phase separation of polymer blends or copolymers
Determine effects of physical aging, crosslinking or postcure on mechanical properties and Tg
Time-Temperature Superpositioning (TTS): predict material behavior over a wider frequency (or longer time) range using a few strategic DMA tests
Strain sweep: uses a range of strain amplitudes to find the region of linear viscoelastic performance at constant temperature
Frequency sweep: uses various oscillation rates to determine effect of frequency on mechanical properties
Temperature ramp or isothermal conditions: precision heating and cooling to study effect of temperature on mechanical response
Various displacement modes: 1) Tensile (stretch) for thin films and fibers; 2) Flexural (bend) for filled and crystalline polymers, thermoplastics, crosslinked polymers, elastomers and composites; 3) Shear for soft foams, gels and rubbers
Controlled force / displacement modes: non-oscillatory testing that measures mechanical response after applying instantaneous force or displacement: 1) Creep/recovery; 2) Stress relaxation
Geometrically uniform test specimens
Specimens should be free of inclusions, bubbles and cracks
Needs multiple specimens for method development and obtaining statistical averages of properties