了解VCSEL:从外延晶片生长到失效分析

应用笔记简介

The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) has several advantages over its edge-emitting cousin.垂直腔表面发射激光器(VCSEL)优于其边缘发射表亲。 Its strengths include a higher modulation speed, on-wafer testing and the emission of a symmetrical emission pattern that is oriented perpendicular to the surface.它的优势包括更高的调制速度,晶圆上测试以及垂直于表面定向的对称发射图案的发射。 This form of emission is ideal for coupling into other optical components.这种发射形式非常适合耦合到其他光学组件中。 This emission pattern is also well suited for configuring multiple devices into a two-dimensional array.此发射模式也非常适合将多个设备配置为二维阵列。 However, all these merits over edge-emitting lasers come at the expense of a more complex device architecture.但是,所有这些优于边缘发射激光器的优点都是以更复杂的设备架构为代价的。 With a VCSEL, resonator mirrors have to fulfil two roles: like an edge-emitter, they have to control the extent of optical feedback and light output;使用VCSEL,谐振镜必须履行两个职责:像边缘发射器一样,它们必须控制光反馈和光输出的范围; but in addition, they also have to be electrically conducting, so that they can allow the injection of carriers from the contacts into the active region.但是此外,它们还必须是导电的,以便可以将载流子从触点注入到有源区域中。 This set of requirements is often met by forming a stack of semiconductor layers, which have thicknesses that are carefully chosen to create a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR).通常通过形成半导体层的堆叠来满足这组要求,该半导体层的厚度经过仔细选择以创建分布式布拉格反射器(DBR)。 To produce a high performance VCSEL, the DBR is formed from alternating layers with a sufficiently high refractive index contrast in order to realize high levels of reflection.为了生产高性能VCSEL,DBR由具有足够高折射率对比度的交替层形成,以实现高水平的反射。 Engineers must also ensure that the conductivity of the mirrors is sufficiently high to prevent current injection into the active region from causing excessive ohmic heating.工程师还必须确保反射镜的电导率足够高,以防止电流注入有源区引起过多的欧姆加热。 Our development of advanced techniques for materials analysis has allowed EAG Laboratories to provide comprehensive process development and failure analysis of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers.我们对材料分析的先进技术的发展使EAG实验室能够提供垂直腔表面发射激光器的全面过程开发和故障分析。 Our proprietary PCOR-SIMS capabilities have opened up this technique so that it is no longer limited to impurity and dopant analyses of semiconductor materials.我们专有的PCOR-SIMS功能开启了这项技术,因此它不再局限于半导体材料的杂质和掺杂物分析。
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