Televisions, computer screens, cell phone screens etc. are getting clearer, sharper, brighter and use much less power. This is all possible through LEDs – or light-emitting diodes. LED display applications range from our smartwatches to large advertising billboards. They also have a longer lifespan than traditional lighting technology.
An LED is a semiconductor device, which can emit light when an electric current passes through it. To do this, holes from p-type semiconductors recombine with electrons from n-type semiconductors to produce light. Inside the semiconductor material of an LED, the electrons and holes are contained within the energy bands. The separation of these bands (i.e., the bandgap) determines the energy of the photons (light particles) that are emitted by the LED. The photon energy determines the wavelength of the emitted light, and hence its color. Different semiconductor materials with different bandgaps produce different colors of light. The color can be fine-tuned by altering the composition of the light-emitting or active, region.1
Until the mid-90s LEDs had a limited range of colors. With the development of LEDs based on the gallium nitride (GaN) material system the expanded color palette resulted in many new applications. Typical blue and green LEDs are gallium nitride based, but the red LED is made up of GaP (gallium phosphide), InAlP (indium aluminum phosphide), InAlGaP (indium aluminum gallium phosphide), InGaP (indium gallium phosphide), AlGaAs (aluminum gallium arsenide), GaAs (gallium arsenide). Red LEDs are frequently promoted in skin treatments as experts believe that red LED light acts on cells in the skin known as fibroblasts, which play a role in the production of collagen.2
When analyzing red LEDs, the scientists at Eurofins EAG Laboratories (EAG) utilize PCOR-SIMSSM. PCOR-SIMSSM is a point-by-point data correction algorithm, which uses the alloy composition at a given data point for proper calibration of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) intensities. This corrects for matrix effects therefore layer thicknesses and elemental concentrations are determined more accurately.
With over 40+ years of experience, EAG is an expert in SIMS. In fact, EAG is the world leader in commercial SIMS analysis – and has been for decades. The depth and scope of experience and commitment to research and development in the SIMS field is unrivaled. At EAG there is a long history of working with customers as partners. EAG helps its customers with challenges prior to going to final production or final product fabrication. Understanding manufacturing, EAG is equipped to solve complex problems that may arise in trials and much more.
1“What is an LED?” 1 September 2004. LEDs Magazine. 8 June 2022. <https://www.ledsmagazine.com/leds-ssl-design/materials/article/16701292/what-is-an-led>
2“Diseases & Conditions.” 1 October 2019. Harvard Health Publishing. Article. 6 June 2022. <https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/led-lights-are-they-a-cure-for-your-skin-woes>.
RBS is the one technique where we can really say that the composition and concentration are accurately determined for thin films.
TEM, STEM and AC-STEM techniques deliver high resolution images providing a detailed view of a material or product.
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